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Entropy 2016, 18(6), 229; doi:10.3390/e18060229

Investigating Aging-Related Changes in the Coordination of Agonist and Antagonist Muscles Using Fuzzy Entropy and Mutual Information

1,2,†
,
1,2,†
,
1,2
,
1,2
,
3
and
1,2,*
1
Key Laboratory of Sensing Technology and Biomedical Instrument of Guang Dong province, School of Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
2
Guangdong Provincial Engineering and Technology Center of Advanced and Portable Medical Devices, Guangzhou 510275, China
3
Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510120, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Raúl Alcaraz Martínez and Kevin H. Knuth
Received: 4 April 2016 / Revised: 26 May 2016 / Accepted: 3 June 2016 / Published: 20 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Information Theory)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2298 KB, uploaded 20 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

Aging alters muscular coordination patterns. This study aimed to investigate aging-related changes in the coordination of agonist and antagonist muscles from two aspects, the activities of individual muscles and the inter-muscular coupling. Eighteen young subjects and 10 elderly subjects were recruited to modulate the agonist muscle activity to track a target during voluntary isometric elbow flexion and extension. Normalized muscle activation and fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn) were applied to depict the activities of biceps and triceps. Mutual information (MI) was utilized to measure the inter-muscular coupling between biceps and triceps. The agonist activation decreased and the antagonist activation increased significantly during elbow flexion and extension with aging. FuzzyEn values of agonist electromyogram (EMG) were similar between the two age groups. FuzzyEn values of antagonist EMG increased significantly with aging during elbow extension. MI decreased significantly with aging during elbow extension. These results indicated increased antagonist co-activation and decreased inter-muscular coupling with aging during elbow extension, which might result from the reduced reciprocal inhibition and the recruitment of additional cortical-spinal pathways connected to biceps. Based on FuzzyEn and MI, this study provided a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the aging-related changes in the coordination of agonist and antagonist muscles. View Full-Text
Keywords: aging; muscular coordination; fuzzy entropy; mutual information aging; muscular coordination; fuzzy entropy; mutual information
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, W.; Liang, J.; Yang, Y.; Wu, Y.; Yan, T.; Song, R. Investigating Aging-Related Changes in the Coordination of Agonist and Antagonist Muscles Using Fuzzy Entropy and Mutual Information. Entropy 2016, 18, 229.

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