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Entropy 2015, 17(8), 5288-5303; doi:10.3390/e17085288

Escalation with Overdose Control is More Efficient and Safer than Accelerated Titration for Dose Finding

Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, 8700 Beverly Blvd., PACT, Suite 900C, Los Angeles, CA 90048, USA
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Academic Editors: Carlos Alberto De Bragança Pereira and Adriano Polpo
Received: 30 May 2015 / Revised: 9 July 2015 / Accepted: 23 July 2015 / Published: 27 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inductive Statistical Methods)
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Abstract

The standard 3 + 3 or “modified Fibonacci” up-and-down (MF-UD) method of dose escalation is by far the most used design in dose-finding cancer trials. However, MF-UD has always shown inferior performance when compared with its competitors regarding number of patients treated at optimal doses. A consequence of using less effective designs is that more patients are treated with doses outside the therapeutic window. In June 2012, the U S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rejected the proposal to use Escalation with Overdose Control (EWOC), an established dose-finding method which has been extensively used in FDA-approved first in human trials and imposed a variation of the MF-UD, known as accelerated titration (AT) design. This event motivated us to perform an extensive simulation study comparing the operating characteristics of AT and EWOC. We show that the AT design has poor operating characteristics relative to three versions of EWOC under several practical scenarios. From the clinical investigator’s perspective, lower bias and mean square error make EWOC designs preferable than AT designs without compromising safety. From a patient’s perspective, uniformly higher proportion of patients receiving doses within an optimal range of the true MTD makes EWOC designs preferable than AT designs. View Full-Text
Keywords: dose finding; cancer early trials; phase I trials; escalation with overdose control; accelerated titration; EWOC dose finding; cancer early trials; phase I trials; escalation with overdose control; accelerated titration; EWOC
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rogatko, A.; Cook-Wiens, G.; Tighiouart, M.; Piantadosi, S. Escalation with Overdose Control is More Efficient and Safer than Accelerated Titration for Dose Finding. Entropy 2015, 17, 5288-5303.

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