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Entropy 2015, 17(2), 903-913;

Thermophysical Characteristics of the Ferrofluid in a Vertical Rectangle

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714, Korea
Department of Engineering Technology, College of Science and Engineering, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
Daegyeong Regional Division, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, 13-13 Hayang-ro, Gyeongsan-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do 712-702, Korea
School of Mechanical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 712-749, Korea
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 November 2014 / Revised: 10 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 16 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Thermodynamics)
Full-Text   |   PDF [923 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]


The article aimed to analytically investigate the thermophysical behaviors of a ferrofluid in a vertical rectangle with the variation of intensity of the magnetic field, viscosity of the ferrofluid and boundary conditions. The governing equations of the ferrofluid include the continuity, momentum and energy equations for describing the thermal-fluidic behaviors of the ferrofluid and the Maxwell equation and magnetization equation are also added to consider rotating effect of the nano-sized particles. The flow behavior and heat transfer characteristics of the ferrofluid with the intensity of the magnetic field, viscosities of the ferrofluid and boundary conditions were analyzed through isotherms, velocity profiles and both mean and local Nusselt numbers. As a result, the isotherms of the ferrofluid in the vertical rectangle increased with the increase of the magnetic volume fractions and magnetic field intensities. In addition, the mean Nusselt numbers increased with the increase of magnetite volume fractions at all magnetic field intensities because of the combined effects of both heat conduction by magnetite and the magnetic volume force. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferrofluid; magnetic field; thermophysical behavior; vertical rectangle ferrofluid; magnetic field; thermophysical behavior; vertical rectangle
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Seo, J.-H.; You, B.-H.; Kwen, S.-S.; Lee, D.-Y.; Lee, M.-Y. Thermophysical Characteristics of the Ferrofluid in a Vertical Rectangle. Entropy 2015, 17, 903-913.

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