Next Article in Journal
Self-Organization during Friction of Slide Bearing Antifriction Materials
Next Article in Special Issue
Numerical Study of Entropy Generation Within Thermoacoustic Heat Exchangers with Plane Fins
Previous Article in Journal
Multiscale Entropy Analysis of Center-of-Pressure Dynamics in Human Postural Control: Methodological Considerations
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Second Law Today: Using Maximum-Minimum Entropy Generation
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2015, 17(12), 7948-7966;

A Robust Image Tampering Detection Method Based on Maximum Entropy Criteria

College of Computer Science and Technology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
Key Laboratory of Symbolic Computation and Knowledge Engineering of Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Umberto Lucia and Giuseppe Grazzini
Received: 12 August 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 18 November 2015 / Published: 1 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5093 KB, uploaded 3 December 2015]   |  


This paper proposes a novel image watermarking method based on local energy and maximum entropy aiming to improve the robustness. First, the image feature distribution is extracted by employing the local energy model and then it is transformed as a digital watermark by employing a Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). An offset image is thus obtained according to the difference between the extracted digital watermarking and the feature distribution of the watermarked image. The entropy of the pixel value distribution is computed first. The Lorenz curve is used to measure the polarization degree of the pixel value distribution. In the pixel location distribution flow, the maximum entropy criteria is applied in segmenting the offset image into potentially tampered regions and unchanged regions. All-connected graph and 2-D Gaussian probability are utilized to obtain the probability distribution of the pixel location. Finally, the factitious tampering probability value of a pending detected image is computed through combining the weighting factors of pixel value and pixel location distribution. Experimental results show that the proposed method is more robust against the commonly used image processing operations, such as Gaussian noise, impulse noise, etc. Simultaneously, the proposed method achieves high sensitivity against factitious tampering. View Full-Text
Keywords: image tampering detection; watermarking; maximum entropy; offset image image tampering detection; watermarking; maximum entropy; offset image

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, B.; Qin, G.; Liu, P. A Robust Image Tampering Detection Method Based on Maximum Entropy Criteria. Entropy 2015, 17, 7948-7966.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top