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Entropy 2015, 17(11), 7768-7785; doi:10.3390/e17117768

A Refined Multiscale Self-Entropy Approach for the Assessment of Cardiac Control Complexity: Application to Long QT Syndrome Type 1 Patients

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences for Health, University of Milan, Via F. Fellini 4, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Italy
2
Center for Cardiac Arrhythmias of Genetic Origin, IRCCS Istituto Auxologico Italiano, Centro Diagnostico San Carlo, Via Pier Lombardo 22, 20135 Milan, Italy
3
Department of Electronics Information and Bioengineering, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milan, Italy
4
Department of Emergency and Intensive Care, San Gerardo Hospital, 20900 Monza, Italy
5
IRCCS Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, 20138 Milan, Italy
6
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
7
Institute of Human Genetics, Helmholtz Zentrum München, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, 85764 Neuherberg, Germany
8
Department of Cardiothoracic, Vascular Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Via Morandi 30, 20097 San Donato Milanese, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anne Humeau-Heurtier
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 24 October 2015 / Accepted: 13 November 2015 / Published: 19 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiscale Entropy and Its Applications in Medicine and Biology)
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Abstract

The study proposes the contemporaneous assessment of conditional entropy (CE) and self-entropy (sE), being the two terms of the Shannon entropy (ShE) decomposition, as a function of the time scale via refined multiscale CE (RMSCE) and sE (RMSsE) with the aim at gaining insight into cardiac control in long QT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) patients featuring the KCNQ1-A341V mutation. CE was estimated via the corrected CE (CCE) and sE as the difference between the ShE and CCE. RMSCE and RMSsE were computed over the beat-to-beat series of heart period (HP) and QT interval derived from 24-hour Holter electrocardiographic recordings during daytime (DAY) and nighttime (NIGHT). LQT1 patients were subdivided into asymptomatic and symptomatic mutation carriers (AMCs and SMCs) according to the severity of symptoms and contrasted with non-mutation carriers (NMCs). We found that RMSCE and RMSsE carry non-redundant information, separate experimental conditions (i.e., DAY and NIGHT) within a given group and distinguish groups (i.e., NMC, AMC and SMC) assigned the experimental condition. Findings stress the importance of the joint evaluation of RMSCE and RMSsE over HP and QT variabilities to typify the state of the autonomic function and contribute to clarify differences between AMCs and SMCs. View Full-Text
Keywords: information storage; heart rate variability; QT interval; refined multiscale entropy; LQT1; corrected conditional entropy; KCNQ1-A341V mutation; autonomic nervous system information storage; heart rate variability; QT interval; refined multiscale entropy; LQT1; corrected conditional entropy; KCNQ1-A341V mutation; autonomic nervous system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bari, V.; Girardengo, G.; Marchi, A.; De Maria, B.; Brink, P.A.; Crotti, L.; Schwartz, P.J.; Porta, A. A Refined Multiscale Self-Entropy Approach for the Assessment of Cardiac Control Complexity: Application to Long QT Syndrome Type 1 Patients. Entropy 2015, 17, 7768-7785.

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