Next Article in Journal
A Maximum Entropy Approach for Predicting Epileptic Tonic-Clonic Seizure
Next Article in Special Issue
Existence of Entropy Solutions for Nonsymmetric Fractional Systems
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Chaos Synchronization Error Technique-Based Defect Pattern Recognition for GIS through Partial Discharge Signal Analysis
Entropy 2014, 16(8), 4583-4602; doi:10.3390/e16084583

Information Entropy-Based Metrics for Measuring Emergences in Artificial Societies

*  and
College of Computer, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, Hunan, China
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 May 2014 / Revised: 30 June 2014 / Accepted: 12 August 2014 / Published: 15 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Complex Systems and Nonlinear Dynamics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1661 KB, uploaded 24 February 2015]   |   Browse Figures


Emergence is a common phenomenon, and it is also a general and important concept in complex dynamic systems like artificial societies. Usually, artificial societies are used for assisting in resolving several complex social issues (e.g., emergency management, intelligent transportation system) with the aid of computer science. The levels of an emergence may have an effect on decisions making, and the occurrence and degree of an emergence are generally perceived by human observers. However, due to the ambiguity and inaccuracy of human observers, to propose a quantitative method to measure emergences in artificial societies is a meaningful and challenging task. This article mainly concentrates upon three kinds of emergences in artificial societies, including emergence of attribution, emergence of behavior, and emergence of structure. Based on information entropy, three metrics have been proposed to measure emergences in a quantitative way. Meanwhile, the correctness of these metrics has been verified through three case studies (the spread of an infectious influenza, a dynamic microblog network, and a flock of birds) with several experimental simulations on the Netlogo platform. These experimental results confirm that these metrics increase with the rising degree of emergences. In addition, this article also has discussed the limitations and extended applications of these metrics.
Keywords: emergence; entropy; dynamic system; artificial society; information theory emergence; entropy; dynamic system; artificial society; information theory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Tang, M.; Mao, X. Information Entropy-Based Metrics for Measuring Emergences in Artificial Societies. Entropy 2014, 16, 4583-4602.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here


[Return to top]
Entropy EISSN 1099-4300 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert