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Entropy 2014, 16(6), 3471-3481; doi:10.3390/e16063471
Letter

Application of the Generalized Work Relation for an N-level Quantum System

1
,
1
,
1,2,*  and 3
1 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito, 310-8512 Japan 2 Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 USA 3 Independent Researcher, Brussels 1050, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract

An efficient periodic operation to obtain the maximum work from a nonequilibrium initial state in an N–level quantum system is shown. Each cycle consists of a stabilization process followed by an isentropic restoration process. The instantaneous time limit can be taken in the stabilization process from the nonequilibrium initial state to a stable passive state. In the restoration process that preserves the passive state a minimum period is needed to satisfy the uncertainty relation between energy and time. An efficient quantum feedback control in a symmetric two–level quantum system connected to an energy source is proposed.
Keywords: nonequilibrium thermodynamics; maximum work; generalized work relation; generalized second law nonequilibrium thermodynamics; maximum work; generalized work relation; generalized second law
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Ishikawa, J.; Takara, K.; Hasegawa, H.-H.; Driebe, D.J. Application of the Generalized Work Relation for an N-level Quantum System. Entropy 2014, 16, 3471-3481.

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