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Entropy 2014, 16(6), 3471-3481; doi:10.3390/e16063471
Letter

Application of the Generalized Work Relation for an N-level Quantum System

1
, 1
, 1,2,*  and 3
1 Department of Mathematical Sciences, Ibaraki University, Bunkyo, Mito, 310-8512 Japan 2 Center for Complex Quantum Systems, Univ. of Texas, Austin, Texas, 78712 USA 3 Independent Researcher, Brussels 1050, Belgium
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 April 2014 / Revised: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 19 June 2014 / Published: 23 June 2014
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Abstract

An efficient periodic operation to obtain the maximum work from a nonequilibrium initial state in an N–level quantum system is shown. Each cycle consists of a stabilization process followed by an isentropic restoration process. The instantaneous time limit can be taken in the stabilization process from the nonequilibrium initial state to a stable passive state. In the restoration process that preserves the passive state a minimum period is needed to satisfy the uncertainty relation between energy and time. An efficient quantum feedback control in a symmetric two–level quantum system connected to an energy source is proposed.
Keywords: nonequilibrium thermodynamics; maximum work; generalized work relation; generalized second law nonequilibrium thermodynamics; maximum work; generalized work relation; generalized second law
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ishikawa, J.; Takara, K.; Hasegawa, H.-H.; Driebe, D.J. Application of the Generalized Work Relation for an N-level Quantum System. Entropy 2014, 16, 3471-3481.

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