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Entropy 2014, 16(11), 6116-6132; doi:10.3390/e16116116

Entropy Generation during Turbulent Flow of Zirconia-water and Other Nanofluids in a Square Cross Section Tube with a Constant Heat Flux

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
Current address: Young Researchers and Elite Club, Mashhad Branch, Islamic Azad University, Mashhad, Iran
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 July 2014 / Revised: 11 August 2014 / Accepted: 6 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
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The entropy generation based on the second law of thermodynamics is investigated for turbulent forced convection flow of ZrO2-water nanofluid through a square pipe with constant wall heat flux. Effects of different particle concentrations, inlet conditions and particle sizes on entropy generation of ZrO2-water nanofluid are studied. Contributions from frictional and thermal entropy generations are investigated, and the optimal working condition is analyzed. The results show that the optimal volume concentration of nanoparticles to minimize the entropy generation increases when the Reynolds number decreases. It was also found that the thermal entropy generation increases with the increase of nanoparticle size whereas the frictional entropy generation decreases. Finally, the entropy generation of ZrO2-water was compared with that from other nanofluids (including Al2O3, SiO2 and CuO nanoparticles in water). The results showed that the SiO2 provided the highest entropy generation. View Full-Text
Keywords: entropy generation, nanofluid, turbulent flow entropy generation, nanofluid, turbulent flow

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yarmand, H.; Ahmadi, G.; Gharehkhani, S.; Kazi, S.N.; Safaei, M.R.; Alehashem, M.S.; Mahat, A.B. Entropy Generation during Turbulent Flow of Zirconia-water and Other Nanofluids in a Square Cross Section Tube with a Constant Heat Flux. Entropy 2014, 16, 6116-6132.

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