Entropy 2013, 15(4), 1388-1407; doi:10.3390/e15041388
Review

Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations

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Received: 18 March 2013; in revised form: 2 April 2013 / Accepted: 14 April 2013 / Published: 17 April 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entropy and Energy Extraction)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: An enormous dissipation of the order of 2 kJ/L takes place during the natural mixing process of fresh river water entering the salty sea. “Capacitive mixing” is a promising technique to efficiently harvest this energy in an environmentally clean and sustainable fashion. This method has its roots in the ability to store a very large amount of electric charge inside supercapacitor or battery electrodes dipped in a saline solution. Three different schemes have been studied so far, namely, Capacitive Double Layer Expansion (CDLE), Capacitive Donnan Potential (CDP) and Mixing Entropy Battery (MEB), respectively based on the variation upon salinity change of the electric double layer capacity, on the Donnan membrane potential, and on the electrochemical energy of intercalated ions.
Keywords: free energy; water salinity difference; capacitive mixing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rica, R.A.; Ziano, R.; Salerno, D.; Mantegazza, F.; van Roij, R.; Brogioli, D. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations. Entropy 2013, 15, 1388-1407.

AMA Style

Rica RA, Ziano R, Salerno D, Mantegazza F, van Roij R, Brogioli D. Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations. Entropy. 2013; 15(4):1388-1407.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rica, Raúl A.; Ziano, Roberto; Salerno, Domenico; Mantegazza, Francesco; van Roij, Renéa; Brogioli, Doriano. 2013. "Capacitive Mixing for Harvesting the Free Energy of Solutions at Different Concentrations." Entropy 15, no. 4: 1388-1407.

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