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Entropy 2013, 15(3), 972-987; doi:10.3390/e15030972
Article

Information Properties of Boundary Line Models for N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils

1,* , 2
, 3
, 3
 and 1,*
Received: 15 January 2013; in revised form: 25 February 2013 / Accepted: 27 February 2013 / Published: 5 March 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Information Theory in the Geosciences)
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Abstract: Boundary line models for N2O emissions from agricultural soils provide a means of estimating emissions within defined ranges. Boundary line models partition a two-dimensional region of parameter space into sub-regions by means of thresholds based on relationships between N2O emissions and explanatory variables, typically using soil data available from laboratory or field studies. Such models are intermediate in complexity between the use of IPCC emission factors and complex process-based models. Model calibration involves characterizing the extent to which observed data are correctly forecast. Writing the numerical results from graphical two-threshold boundary line models as 3×3 prediction-realization tables facilitates calculation of expected mutual information, a measure of the amount of information about the observations contained in the forecasts. Whereas mutual information characterizes the performance of a forecaster averaged over all forecast categories, specific information and relative entropy both characterize aspects of the amount of information contained in particular forecasts. We calculate and interpret these information quantities for experimental N2O emissions data.
Keywords: nitrous oxide; emissions; boundary line model; agricultural soils; expected mutual information; normalized mutual information; specific information; relative entropy nitrous oxide; emissions; boundary line model; agricultural soils; expected mutual information; normalized mutual information; specific information; relative entropy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Topp, C.F.; Wang, W.; Cloy, J.M.; Rees, R.M.; Hughes, G. Information Properties of Boundary Line Models for N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils. Entropy 2013, 15, 972-987.

AMA Style

Topp CF, Wang W, Cloy JM, Rees RM, Hughes G. Information Properties of Boundary Line Models for N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils. Entropy. 2013; 15(3):972-987.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Topp, Cairistiona F.; Wang, Weijin; Cloy, Joanna M.; Rees, Robert M.; Hughes, Gareth. 2013. "Information Properties of Boundary Line Models for N2O Emissions from Agricultural Soils." Entropy 15, no. 3: 972-987.


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