Open AccessThis article is
- freely available
Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010
Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 21 October 2013; in revised form: 12 December 2013 / Accepted: 12 December 2013 / Published: 16 December 2013
Abstract: We study the global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita around the world using data from the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) for 1980–2010. We find that the Lorenz curves have moved up during this time period, and the Gini coefficient, G, has decreased from 0.66 in 1980 to 0.55 in 2010, indicating a decrease in inequality. The global probability distribution of energy consumption per capita in 2010 is close to the exponential distribution withG = 0:5. We attribute this result to the globalization of the world economy, which mixes the world and brings it closer to the state of maximal entropy. We argue that global energy production is a limited resource that is partitioned among the world population. The most probable partition is the one that maximizes entropy, thus resulting in the exponential distribution function. A consequence of the latter is the law of 1/3: the top 1/3 of the world population consumes 2/3 of produced energy. We also find similar results for the global probability distribution of CO2 emissions per capita.
Keywords: inequality; energy consumption; carbon emission; maximal entropy; exponential distribution; Lorenz curve; Gini coefficient; econophysics; the law of 1/3; globalization
Citations to this Article
Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Lawrence, S.; Liu, Q.; Yakovenko, V.M. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010. Entropy 2013, 15, 5565-5579.
Lawrence S, Liu Q, Yakovenko VM. Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010. Entropy. 2013; 15(12):5565-5579.
Lawrence, Scott; Liu, Qin; Yakovenko, Victor M. 2013. "Global Inequality in Energy Consumption from 1980 to 2010." Entropy 15, no. 12: 5565-5579.