Entropy 2013, 15(11), 4700-4715; doi:10.3390/e15114700

Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

Received: 23 August 2013; in revised form: 20 October 2013 / Accepted: 22 October 2013 / Published: 31 October 2013
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.
Keywords: thermoelectrics; second law; entropy; adiabatic gradient; diffusion and drift; high ZT; thermoelectric effect; Peltier effect; Seebeck effect; Thomson effect
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MDPI and ACS Style

Levy, G. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions. Entropy 2013, 15, 4700-4715.

AMA Style

Levy G. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions. Entropy. 2013; 15(11):4700-4715.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Levy, George. 2013. "Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions." Entropy 15, no. 11: 4700-4715.

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