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Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes
Institute of Genomic Biology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Department of Physics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
J. Craig Venter Institute, Rockville, MD 20850, USA
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, IL 61801, USA
Department of Microbiology, University of Illinois, IL 61801, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 December 2010; in revised form: 19 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 25 February 2011
Abstract: Second-generation sequencing technologies have granted us greater access to the diversity and genetics of microbial communities that naturally reside endo- and ecto-symbiotically with animal hosts. Substantial research has emerged describing the diversity and broader trends that exist within and between host species and their associated microbial ecosystems, yet the application of these data to our evolutionary understanding of microbiomes appears fragmented. For the most part biological perspectives are based on limited observations of oversimplified communities, while mathematical and/or computational modeling of these concepts often lack biological precedence. In recognition of this disconnect, both fields have attempted to incorporate ecological theories, although their applicability is currently a subject of debate because most ecological theories were developed based on observations of macro-organisms and their ecosystems. For the purposes of this review, we attempt to transcend the biological, ecological and computational realms, drawing on extensive literature, to forge a useful framework that can, at a minimum be built upon, but ideally will shape the hypotheses of each field as they move forward. In evaluating the top-down selection pressures that are exerted on a microbiome we find cause to warrant reconsideration of the much-maligned theory of multi-level selection and reason that complexity must be underscored by modularity.
Keywords: microbiome; evolution; animal; multi-level selection; modularity; complexity; interdependency; ecology
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Yeoman, C.J.; Chia, N.; Yildirim, S.; Miller, M.E.B.; Kent, A.; Stumpf, R.; Leigh, S.R.; Nelson, K.E.; White, B.A.; Wilson, B.A. Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes. Entropy 2011, 13, 570-594.
Yeoman CJ, Chia N, Yildirim S, Miller MEB, Kent A, Stumpf R, Leigh SR, Nelson KE, White BA, Wilson BA. Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes. Entropy. 2011; 13(3):570-594.
Yeoman, Carl J.; Chia, Nicholas; Yildirim, Suleyman; Miller, Margret E. Berg; Kent, Angela; Stumpf, Rebecca; Leigh, Steven R.; Nelson, Karen E.; White, Bryan A.; Wilson, Brenda A. 2011. "Towards an Evolutionary Model of Animal-Associated Microbiomes." Entropy 13, no. 3: 570-594.