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Entropy 2010, 12(3), 445-472; doi:10.3390/e12030445
Article

Combined Effects of Pipe Diameter, Reynolds Number and Wall Heat Flux and on Flow, Heat Transfer and Second-Law Characteristics of Laminar-Transitional Micro-Pipe Flows

Received: 3 December 2009; in revised form: 16 February 2010 / Accepted: 21 February 2010 / Published: 9 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exergy: Analysis and Applications)
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Abstract: Fluid flow, heat transfer and entropy generation characteristics of micro-pipes are investigated computationally by considering the simultaneous effects of pipe diameter, wall heat flux and Reynolds number in detail. Variable fluid property continuity, Navier-Stokes and energy equations are numerically handled for wide ranges of pipe diameter (d = 0.50–1.00 mm), wall heat flux (q''= 1000–2000 W/m2) and Reynolds number (Re = 1 – 2000), where the relative roughness is kept constant at e/d = 0.001 in the complete set of the scenarios considered. Computations indicated slight shifts in velocity profiles from the laminar character at Re = 500 with the corresponding shape factor (H) and intermittency values (γ) of H = 3.293→3.275 and γ = 0.041→0.051 (d = 1.00→0.50 mm). Moreover, the onset of transition was determined to move down to Retra = 1,656, 1,607, 1,491, 1,341 and 1,272 at d = 1.00, 0.90, 0.75, 0.60 and 0.50 mm, respectively. The impacts of pipe diameter on friction mechanism and heat transfer rates are evaluated to become more significant at high Reynolds numbers, resulting in the rise of energy loss data at the identical conditions as well. In cases with low pipe diameter and high Reynolds number, wall heat flux is determined to promote the magnitude of local thermal entropy generation rates. Local Bejan numbers are inspected to rise with wall heat flux at high Reynolds numbers, indicating that the elevating role of wall heat flux on local thermal entropy generation is dominant to the suppressing function of Reynolds number on local thermal entropy generation. Cross-sectional total entropy generation is computed to be most influenced by pipe diameter at high wall heat flux and low Reynolds numbers.
Keywords: micro-pipe; friction coefficient; heat transfer; entropy generation micro-pipe; friction coefficient; heat transfer; entropy generation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ozalp, A.A. Combined Effects of Pipe Diameter, Reynolds Number and Wall Heat Flux and on Flow, Heat Transfer and Second-Law Characteristics of Laminar-Transitional Micro-Pipe Flows. Entropy 2010, 12, 445-472.

AMA Style

Ozalp AA. Combined Effects of Pipe Diameter, Reynolds Number and Wall Heat Flux and on Flow, Heat Transfer and Second-Law Characteristics of Laminar-Transitional Micro-Pipe Flows. Entropy. 2010; 12(3):445-472.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ozalp, A. Alper. 2010. "Combined Effects of Pipe Diameter, Reynolds Number and Wall Heat Flux and on Flow, Heat Transfer and Second-Law Characteristics of Laminar-Transitional Micro-Pipe Flows." Entropy 12, no. 3: 445-472.


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