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Correction published on 7 August 2009, see Entropy 2009, 11(3), 384.

Open AccessArticle
Entropy 2009, 11(3), 351-359; doi:10.3390/e11030351

Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza

1
Division of Applied Mathematics and Center for Computational Molecular Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
2
Department of Physics, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207, USA
3
Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 31 July 2009
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Abstract

The use of the digital signal processing procedure of decimation is introduced as a tool to detect patterns of information entropy distribution and is applied to information entropy in influenza A segment 7. Decimation was able to reveal patterns of entropy accumulation in archival and emerging segment 7 sequences that were not apparent in the complete, undecimated data. The low entropy accumulation along the first 25% of segment 7, revealed by the three frames of decimation, may be a sign of regulation at both protein and RNA levels to conserve important viral functions. Low segment 7 entropy values from the 2009 H1N1 swine flu pandemic suggests either that: (1) the viruses causing the current outbreak have convergently evolved to their low entropy state or (2) more likely, not enough time has yet passed for the entropy to accumulate. Because of its dependence upon the periodicity of the codon, the decimative procedure should be generalizable to any biological system. View Full-Text
Keywords: decimation down-sampling; information entropy; array multiplication; FFT Fourier transform; DSP digital signal processing; influenza A; influenza segment 7; influenza subtypes; H1N1 swine flu pandemic outbreak; M proteins decimation down-sampling; information entropy; array multiplication; FFT Fourier transform; DSP digital signal processing; influenza A; influenza segment 7; influenza subtypes; H1N1 swine flu pandemic outbreak; M proteins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Thompson, W.A.; Martwick, A.; Weltman, J.K. Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza. Entropy 2009, 11, 351-359.

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