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Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza
Division of Applied Mathematics and Center for Computational Molecular Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Department of Physics, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97207, USA
Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2009 / Accepted: 29 July 2009 / Published: 31 July 2009
Abstract: The use of the digital signal processing procedure of decimation is introduced as a tool to detect patterns of information entropy distribution and is applied to information entropy in influenza A segment 7. Decimation was able to reveal patterns of entropy accumulation in archival and emerging segment 7 sequences that were not apparent in the complete, undecimated data. The low entropy accumulation along the first 25% of segment 7, revealed by the three frames of decimation, may be a sign of regulation at both protein and RNA levels to conserve important viral functions. Low segment 7 entropy values from the 2009 H1N1 swine flu pandemic suggests either that: (1) the viruses causing the current outbreak have convergently evolved to their low entropy state or (2) more likely, not enough time has yet passed for the entropy to accumulate. Because of its dependence upon the periodicity of the codon, the decimative procedure should be generalizable to any biological system.
Keywords: decimation down-sampling; information entropy; array multiplication; FFT Fourier transform; DSP digital signal processing; influenza A; influenza segment 7; influenza subtypes; H1N1 swine flu pandemic outbreak; M proteins
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Thompson, W.A.; Martwick, A.; Weltman, J.K. Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza. Entropy 2009, 11, 351-359.
Thompson WA, Martwick A, Weltman JK. Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza. Entropy. 2009; 11(3):351-359.
Thompson, William A.; Martwick, Andy; Weltman, Joel K. 2009. "Decimative Multiplication of Entropy Arrays, with Application to Influenza." Entropy 11, no. 3: 351-359.