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Information Entropy of Influenza A Segment 7
Division of Applied Mathematics and Center for Computational Molecular Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
Bioinformatics Center, Northwest A&F University, 712100 Yangling, Shaanxi, China
Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 November 2008; in revised form: 21 November 2008 / Accepted: 21 November 2008 / Published: 23 November 2008
Abstract: Information entropy (H) is a measure of uncertainty at each position within in a sequence of nucleotides.H was used to characterize a set of influenza A segment 7 nucleotide sequences. Nucleotide locations of high entropy were identified near the 5’ start of all of the sequences and the sequences were assigned to subsets according to synonymous nucleotide variants at those positions: either uracil at position six (U6), cytosine at position six (C6), adenine (A12) at position 12, guanine at position 12 (G12), adenine at position 15 (A15) or cytosine (C15) at position 15. H values were found to be correlated/corresponding (Kendall tau) along the lengths of the nucleotide segments of the subset pairs at each position. However, the H values of each subset of sequences were statistically distinguishable from those of the other member of the pair (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test). The joint probability of uncorrelated distributions of U6 and C6 sequences to viral subtypes and to viral host species was 34 times greater than for the A12:G12 subset pair and 214 times greater than for the A15:C15 pair. This result indicates that the high entropy position six of segment 7 is either a reporter or a sentinel location. The fact that not one of the H5N1 sequences in the dataset was a member of the C6 subset, but all 125 H5N1 sequences are members of the U6 subset suggests a non-random sentinel function.
Keywords: Influenza; information entropy; segment 7; subtypes; hosts; synonymous mutations
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MDPI and ACS Style
Thompson, W.A.; Fan, S.; Weltman, J.K. Information Entropy of Influenza A Segment 7. Entropy 2008, 10, 736-744.
Thompson WA, Fan S, Weltman JK. Information Entropy of Influenza A Segment 7. Entropy. 2008; 10(4):736-744.
Thompson, William A.; Fan, Shaohua; Weltman, Joel K. 2008. "Information Entropy of Influenza A Segment 7." Entropy 10, no. 4: 736-744.