MDPI Reference List and Citations Style Guide
MDPI recommends that references be prepared with a bibliography software package such as EndNote or ReferenceManager, if a manuscript is prepared in MS Word. Alternatively, the free software Zotero can be used. Zotero is a tool that helps you to collect, organize and cite your references. For LaTeX users we strongly recommend to prepare references with BibTeX. If references are prepared manually, the authors should check them for completeness and correctness. For this purpose authors may use Web of Science, PubMed/MEDLINE or Google Scholar.
EndNote Users: download the MDPI.ens references style file from the EndNote website at http://endnote.com/downloads/style/mdpi.
Full Reference Formatting Guides
Download the full Chicago Reference List and Citations Style Guide (PDF, 175KB, for the journals Religions, Laws, Humanities and Social Sciences).
Note: An EndNote template file for the MDPI Chicago Style can be obtained from the journals' editorial offices.
Quick Reference Formatting Guide
- Journal references must cite the full title of the paper and its starting and ending pages. Cited journals should be abbreviated according to ISO 4 rules, see the ISSN Center's List of Title Word Abbreviations or CAS's Core Journals List. Note: If you are not sure how to abbreviate a particular journal title, please leave the entire title. The Editorial Office will abbreviate those journal titles appropriately.
- References to books should cite the author(s), title, publisher, publisher location (city and country), publication year, and page:
- In referring to a book written by various contributors, cite author(s) first:
8. Bowman, C.M.; Landee, F.A.; Reslock, M.A. Chemically Oriented Storage and Retrieval System. 1. Storage and Verification of Structural Information. J. Chem. Doc. 1967, 7, 43-47.
9. Smith, A.B. Textbook of Organic Chemistry; D. C. Jones: New York, NY, USA, 1961; pp 123-126.
10. Winstein, S.; Henderson, R.B. In Heterocyclic Compounds; Elderfield, R.C., Ed.; Wiley: New York, NY, USA, 1950; Vol. 1, Chapter 1, p 60.