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J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. 2018, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/ohbm1010004

Head and Neck Paraganglioma: Medical Assessment, Management, and Literature Update

Registrar (Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery), Melbourne 3001, Australia
Department of Surgery, Monash University, Melbourne 3168, Australia
ENT—Otoneurology Unit, The Alfred, Melbourne 3004, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2017 / Revised: 26 November 2017 / Accepted: 3 December 2017 / Published: 8 December 2017
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Head and neck paraganglioma (HNPGL) are rare, highly vascular; typically slow growing and mostly benign neoplasms arising from paraganglia cells. HNPGL cause morbidity via mass effect on adjacent structures (particularly the cranial nerves), invasion of the skull base and, rarely, catecholamine secretion with associated systemic effects. The last decade has seen significant progress in the understanding of HNPGL genetics, with pertinent implications for diagnostic assessment and management of patients and their relatives. The implicated genes code for three of the five subunits of mitochondrial enzyme succinate dehydrogenase (SDH); recent literature reports that approximately one third of all HNPGL are associated with SDH mutations—a prevalence significantly greater than traditionally thought. There are distinct phenotypical syndromes associated with mutations in each individual SDH subunit (SDHD, SDHB, SDHC, and SDHAF2). This article focuses on the clinical features of HNPGL, the implications of HNPGL genetics, and the current evidence relating to optimal identification, investigation, and management options in HNPGL, which are supported by reference to a personal series of 60 cases. HNPGL require a systematic and thorough assessment to appropriately guide management decisions, and a suggested algorithm is presented in this article. Recent developments are particularly pertinent to surgeons of multiple disciplines, including otolaryngology, neurosurgery, vascular, and general surgery. View Full-Text
Keywords: paraganglioma; head and neck paraganglioma; neoplasms; head and neck; glomus tumor; succinate dehydrogenase paraganglioma; head and neck paraganglioma; neoplasms; head and neck; glomus tumor; succinate dehydrogenase

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Hayward, N.; Cousins, V. Head and Neck Paraganglioma: Medical Assessment, Management, and Literature Update. J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. 2018, 1, 4.

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J. Otorhinolaryngol. Hear. Balance Med. EISSN 2504-463X Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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