Next Article in Journal
A New Granular Column Collapse Device to Characterise Flowability of Bulk Materials
Previous Article in Journal
Combined Error Elimination for Three Dimensional Thermal Images Using Hybrid Digital Holography
Article Menu
Issue 8 (ICEM 2018) cover image

Article Versions

Export Article

Open AccessProceedings
Proceedings 2018, 2(8), 487;

Efficiency of High Altitude On-shore Wind Turbines: Air Density and Turbulence Effects—Qollpana Wind Farm (Bolivia)

Université Libre de Bruxelles, Aero-Thermo-Mechanics Dept, Avenue F.D. Roosevelt 50, CP 165/41, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
San Simon University, Centro Universitario de Investigación en Energía, Cochabamba 2500, Bolivia
German International Cooperation (GIZ), Wind Energy Advisor to Electric Company ENDE-CORANI, Cochabamba 2500, Bolivia
Presented at the 18th International Conference on Experimental Mechanics (ICEM18), Brussels, Belgium, 1–5 July 2018.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Published: 24 June 2018
PDF [1181 KB, uploaded 4 July 2018]


The wind energy is one of the most important alternatives for renewable and clean electricity generation. During the last decade the number of wind farms has largely increased in South America. Qollpana is only one case of an on-shore wind farm but it is located at 2900 m above sea level over a complex terrain. Due to high altitude, the air density is reduced by 27% compared with sea level and the topographic characteristics induce a high level of turbulence. Qollpana wind farm has ten wind turbines reaching 27 MW of installed capacity. October is the month of highest wind average velocity and February with the lowest one. This work analyses the capacity factor of the wind farm, also the air density and the turbulence effects on wind turbine efficiency. The main results show that monthly capacity factor varies between 0.08 and 0.67 in the wind farm. Moreover, the results have shown a considerable effect of the turbulence intensity on the turbines efficiency.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mamani, R.; Hackenberg, N.; Hendrick, P. Efficiency of High Altitude On-shore Wind Turbines: Air Density and Turbulence Effects—Qollpana Wind Farm (Bolivia). Proceedings 2018, 2, 487.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Proceedings EISSN 2504-3900 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top