Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Melioidosis: An Australian Perspective
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Melioidosis in Malaysia: Incidence, Clinical Challenges, and Advances in Understanding Pathogenesis
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3(1), 26; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed3010026

Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital, Kaohsiung 813, Taiwan
2
Department of Biotechnology, National Kaohsiung Normal University, Kaohsiung 824, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 15 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 28 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Global Burden and Challenges of Melioidosis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [569 KB, uploaded 28 February 2018]   |  

Abstract

In Taiwan, melioidosis is an emerging disease that suddenly increased in the Er-Ren River Basin, beginning in 2005 and in the Zoynan region during 2008–2012, following a typhoon. Additionally, the disease sporadically increased in a geography-dependent manner in 2016. Subcutaneous inoculation, ingestion, and the inhalation of soil or water contaminated with Burkholderia pseudomallei are recognized as the transmission modes of melioidosis. The appearance of environmental B. pseudomallei positivity in northern, central and southern Taiwan is associated with disease prevalence (cases/population: 0.03/100,000 in the northern region, 0.29/100,000 in the central region and 1.98/100,000 in the southern region). However, melioidosis-clustered areas are confined to 5 to 7.5 km2 hot spots containing high-density populations, but B. pseudomallei-contaminated environments are located >5 km northwestern of the periphery of these hot spots. The observation that the concentration of B. pseudomallei-specific DNA in aerosols was positively correlated with the incidence of melioidosis and the appearance of a northwesterly wind in a hot spot indicated that airborne transmission had occurred in Taiwan. Moreover, the isolation rate in the superficial layers of a contaminated crop field in the northwest was correlated with PCR positivity in aerosols collected from the southeast over a two-year period. The genotype ST58 was identified by multilocus sequence typing in human and aerosol isolates. The genotype ST1001 has increased in prevalence but has been sporadically distributed elsewhere since 2016. These data indicate the transmission modes and environmental foci that support the dissemination of melioidosis are changing in Taiwan. View Full-Text
Keywords: melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; transmission modes melioidosis; Burkholderia pseudomallei; transmission modes
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Hsueh, P.-T.; Huang, W.-T.; Hsueh, H.-K.; Chen, Y.-L.; Chen, Y.-S. Transmission Modes of Melioidosis in Taiwan. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2018, 3, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top