Next Article in Journal
Application of PCR-Based Tools to Explore Strongyloides Infection in People in Parts of Northern Australia
Next Article in Special Issue
The COUNTDOWN Study Protocol for Expansion of Mass Drug Administration Strategies against Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis in Ghana
Previous Article in Journal
A Survey of Intestinal Parasites of Domestic Dogs in Central Queensland
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Interdependence between Schistosome Transmission and Protective Immunity
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(4), 61; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed2040061

Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556, USA
2
National Institute for Medical Research, P.O. Box 9653, 3 Barack Obama Drive, 11101 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
3
Department of International Development, London School of Economics & Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK
4
Department of Management, London School of Economics & Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE, UK
5
Tanzania Commission for Science and Technology (COSTECH), P.O. Box 4302, Ali Hassan Mwinyi Road, Kijitonyama, 14113 Dar es Salaam, Tanzania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 23 November 2017 / Published: 4 December 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1761 KB, uploaded 4 December 2017]   |  

Abstract

Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease endemic to Tanzania and other countries of the global south, which is currently being addressed through preventive chemotherapy campaigns. However, there is growing recognition that chemotherapy strategies will need to be supplemented to sustainably control and eventually eliminate the disease. There remains a need to understand the factors contributing to continued transmission in order to ensure the effective configuration and implementation of supplemented programs. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire, to evaluate the biosocial determinants facilitating the persistence of schistosomiasis, among 1704 Tanzanian schoolchildren residing in two districts undergoing a preventive chemotherapeutic program: Rufiji and Mkuranga. A meta-analysis was carried out to select the diagnostic questions that provided a likelihood for predicting infection status. We found that self-reported schistosomiasis continues to persist among the schoolchildren, despite multiple rounds of drug administration.Using mixed effects logistic regression modeling, we found biosocial factors, including gender, socio-economic status, and water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related variables, were associated with this continued schistosomiasis presence. These findings highlight the significant role that social factors may play in the persistence of disease transmission despite multiple treatments, and support the need not only for including integrated technical measures, such as WASH, but also addressing issues of poverty and gender when designing effective and sustainable schistosomiasis control programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: schistosomiasis; social determinants; integrated control; persistence; Tanzania; water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH) schistosomiasis; social determinants; integrated control; persistence; Tanzania; water; sanitation and hygiene (WASH)
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Donohue, R.E.; Mashoto, K.O.; Mubyazi, G.M.; Madon, S.; Malecela, M.N.; Michael, E. Biosocial Determinants of Persistent Schistosomiasis among Schoolchildren in Tanzania despite Repeated Treatment. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 61.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top