Next Article in Journal
The Interdependence between Schistosome Transmission and Protective Immunity
Next Article in Special Issue
The Importance of a Participatory and Integrated One Health Approach for Rabies Control: The Case of N’Djaména, Chad
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Progress towards Bait Station Integration into Oral Rabies Vaccination Programs in the United States: Field Trials in Massachusetts and Florida
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed2030041

Evaluation of Bait Station Density for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in Urban and Rural Habitats in Florida

1
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Rabies Management Program, 59 Chenell Dr., Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 59 Chenell Dr., Suite 7, Concord, NH 03301, USA
3
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 9 Main St., Suite 1M, Sutton, MA 01590, USA
4
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 2803 Jolly Rd., Suite 100, Okemos, MI 48864, USA
5
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 2820 E University Ave., Gainesville, FL 32641, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 July 2017 / Revised: 15 August 2017 / Accepted: 18 August 2017 / Published: 22 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1374 KB, uploaded 23 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Efforts to eliminate the raccoon variant of the rabies virus (raccoon rabies) in the eastern United States by USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services and cooperators have included the distribution of oral rabies vaccine baits from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bait stations in west-central Florida from 2009 to 2015. Achieving sufficient vaccine bait uptake among urban raccoons is problematic, given limitations on aerial and vehicle-based bait distribution for safety and other reasons. One or three bait stations/km2 were deployed across four 9-km2 sites within rural and urban sites in Pasco and Pinellas Counties, Florida. Based on tetracycline biomarker analysis, bait uptake was only significantly different among the urban (Pinellas County) high and low bait station densities in 2012 (p = 0.0133). Significant differences in RVNA were found between the two bait station densities for both urban 2011 and 2012 samples (p = 0.0054 and p = 0.0031). Landscape differences in terms of urban structure and human population density may modify raccoon travel routes and behavior enough for these differences to emerge in highly urbanized Pinellas County, but not in rural Pasco County. The results suggest that, in urban settings, bait stations deployed at densities of >1/km2 are likely to achieve higher seroprevalence as an index of population immunity critical to successful raccoon rabies control. View Full-Text
Keywords: bait stations; raccoons; rabies; vaccine; oral rabies vaccination bait stations; raccoons; rabies; vaccine; oral rabies vaccination
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Haley, B.S.; Algeo, T.P.; Bjorklund, B.; Duffiney, A.G.; Hartin, R.E.; Martin, A.; Nelson, K.M.; Chipman, R.B.; Slate, D. Evaluation of Bait Station Density for Oral Rabies Vaccination of Raccoons in Urban and Rural Habitats in Florida. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 41.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top