Next Article in Journal
Polisye Kont Moustik: A Culturally Competent Approach to Larval Source Reduction in the Context of Lymphatic Filariasis and Malaria Elimination in Haiti
Next Article in Special Issue
Progress towards Bait Station Integration into Oral Rabies Vaccination Programs in the United States: Field Trials in Massachusetts and Florida
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Pathogenicity and Immunogenicity of Recombinant Rabies Viruses Expressing the Lagos Bat Virus Matrix and Glycoprotein: Perspectives for a Pan-Lyssavirus Vaccine
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(3), 38; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed2030038

Spatial Association of Canine Rabies Outbreak and Ecological Urban Corridors, Arequipa, Peru

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
Zoonotic Disease Research Lab, One Health Unit, School of Public Health, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15102, Peru
Gerencia Regional de Salud de Arequipa, Ministerio de Salud, Arequipa 04002, Peru
Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 July 2017 / Revised: 8 August 2017 / Accepted: 9 August 2017 / Published: 13 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4029 KB, uploaded 13 August 2017]   |  


In the city of Arequipa, Peru, a rabid dog was detected in March 2015, marking the reintroduction of the rabies virus in the area; more rabid dogs have been detected since then. The presence of free-roaming dogs in Arequipa seems to be higher in dry water channels, which are widespread in the city. We created a geographic information system (GIS) with surveillance data on the location of rabid dogs detected during the first year of the outbreak, as well as the water channels. We conducted a spatial analysis using Monte Carlo simulations to determine if detected rabid dogs were closer to the water channels than expected. Thirty rabid dogs were detected during the first year of the outbreak, and they were statistically associated with the water channels (average distance to closest water channel = 334 m; p-value = 0.027). Water channels might play a role in the ecology of free-roaming dog populations, functioning as ecological corridors. Landscape ecology could assist in understanding the impact of these urban structures on control activities and the persistence of transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: dogs; geographical information system; GIS; Monte Carlo method; rabies; spatial analysis; zoonosis dogs; geographical information system; GIS; Monte Carlo method; rabies; spatial analysis; zoonosis

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo-Neyra, R.; Zegarra, E.; Monroy, Y.; Bernedo, R.F.; Cornejo-Rosello, I.; Paz-Soldan, V.A.; Levy, M.Z. Spatial Association of Canine Rabies Outbreak and Ecological Urban Corridors, Arequipa, Peru. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 38.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. EISSN 2414-6366 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top