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Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2(2), 17; doi:10.3390/tropicalmed2020017

Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Dogs in Navajo Nation, USA

1
Navajo Nation Veterinary Program, PO Box 2204, Chinle, AZ 86503, USA
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, 8836 N 23rd Avenue, Suite 2, Phoenix, AZ 85021, USA
3
IDT Biologika GmbH, Am Pharmapark, Dessau-Rosslau 06861, Germany
4
United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Wildlife Services, National Rabies Management Program, 59 Chenell Drive, Suite 2, Concord, NH 03301, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Charles Rupprecht and Bernhard Dietzschold
Received: 26 April 2017 / Revised: 9 June 2017 / Accepted: 12 June 2017 / Published: 15 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prophylaxis and Treatment)
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Abstract

Mass parenteral vaccination remains the cornerstone of dog rabies control. Oral rabies vaccination (ORV) could increase vaccination coverage where free-roaming dogs represent a sizeable segment of the population at risk. ORV’s success is dependent on the acceptance of baits that release an efficacious vaccine into the oral cavity. A new egg-flavored bait was tested alongside boiled bovine intestine and a commercially available fishmeal bait using a hand-out model on the Navajo Nation, United States, during June 2016. A PVC capsule and biodegradable sachet were tested, and had no effect on bait acceptance. The intestine baits had the highest acceptance (91.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 83.9%–96.7%), but the fishmeal (81.1%; 95% CI, 71.5%–88.6%) and the egg-flavored baits (77.4%; 95% CI, 72.4%–81.8%) were also well accepted, suggesting that local bait preference studies may be warranted to enhance ORV’s success in other areas where canine rabies is being managed. Based on a dyed water marker, the delivery of a placebo vaccine was best in the intestine baits (75.4%; 95% CI, 63.5%–84.9%), followed by the egg-flavored (68.0%; 95% CI, 62.4%–73.2%) and fishmeal (54.3%; 95% CI, 42.9%–65.4%) baits. Acceptance was not influenced by the supervision or ownership, or sex, age, and body condition of the dogs. This study illustrates that a portion of a dog population may be orally vaccinated as a complement to parenteral vaccination to achieve the immune thresholds required to eliminate dog rabies. View Full-Text
Keywords: rabies; bait; dog; oral vaccination rabies; bait; dog; oral vaccination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bender, S.; Bergman, D.; Vos, A.; Martin, A.; Chipman, R. Field Studies Evaluating Bait Acceptance and Handling by Dogs in Navajo Nation, USA. Trop. Med. Infect. Dis. 2017, 2, 17.

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