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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2(1), 9; doi:10.3390/jfmk2010009

Paraspinal Muscle Activity during Unstable Superman and Bodyweight Squat Exercises

1
Laboratory of Sciences in Physical Activity, School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, 03828-000 São Paulo, Brazil
2
Health Sciences Center; Department of Physical Education, Laboratory of Exercise Physiology and Kinesiology, University of Vale do Itajaí, 88302-901 Itajaí, Brazil
3
Department of Physical Education, University of Contestado, 89460-000 Canoinhas, Brazil
4
Laboratory of Motor Behavior, School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, 05508-030 São Paulo, Brazil
5
Department of Physical Education, Paulista University—UNIP, 01533-000 São Paulo, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Musumeci
Received: 2 December 2016 / Revised: 4 February 2017 / Accepted: 6 February 2017 / Published: 27 February 2017
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the recruitment of the paraspinal muscles longissimus and iliocostalis during dynamic contractions of superman exercises on stable and unstable surfaces, and during unloaded bodyweight squats. Surface electromyography (EMG) was measured from these two muscles bilaterally while participants performed the exercises. Participants (n = 17, age 24 ± 3.1 years, body mass 78.5 ± 8.2 kg, height 1.81 ± 7.4 m) performed two sets of 10 repetitions for each exercise in a random order. Correlation analysis demonstrated a strong positive relation between both sides of the participants (longissimus pairs: r = 0.945; and iliocostalis pairs: r = 0.855), demonstrating a symmetric muscle recruitment in all exercises. However, there were no significant differences between the exercises for both muscles in a multiple comparison analysis (longissimus pairs: p = 0.496; and iliocostalis pairs: p = 0.296). The bodyweight squat produces similar muscle activity of the longissimus and iliocostalis compared with superman exercises on stable and unstable surfaces. Considering the dynamic nature of the bodyweight squat, and its implications on functional daily living activities and sports conditions, it seems a more reasonable choice for targeting paraspinal muscles if compared to superman exercises or unstable superman exercises. View Full-Text
Keywords: squat; lumbar hyperextension; resistance training; low back pain; posterior trunk electromyography squat; lumbar hyperextension; resistance training; low back pain; posterior trunk electromyography
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Carvalheiro Reiser, F.; Gonçalves Durante, B.; Cordeiro de Souza, W.; Paulo Gomes Mascarenhas, L.; Márcio Gatinho Bonuzzi, G. Paraspinal Muscle Activity during Unstable Superman and Bodyweight Squat Exercises. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2017, 2, 9.

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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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