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J. Imaging 2018, 4(4), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jimaging4040059

Cerebral Hemodynamic Influences in Task-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Acute Sport-Related Concussion: A Review

1
National Institute for Health Research Surgical Reconstruction and Microbiology Research Centre (NIHR SRMRC), University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (Heritage Building), Birmingham B15 2TH, UK
2
Neuroscience & Ophthalmology Research Group, Institute of Inflammation & Ageing, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
3
Neuroradiology Section, Department of Human Neuroscience, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome 00185, Italy
4
Mediterranean Neurological Institute “Neuromed” Scientific Institute of Hospitalization and Care (IRCCS), Pozzilli (IS) 86077, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 February 2018 / Revised: 28 March 2018 / Accepted: 13 April 2018 / Published: 17 April 2018
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Abstract

One of the challenges of managing athletes with sport-related concussion (SRC) is guiding them to a safe return to play. A potential biomarker for use in the clinical assessment of recovery is the analysis of brain activation patterns during task-related functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI studies have provided conflicting results regarding what is pathological. An element that can contribute to this disagreement are hemodynamic impairments of the brain that follow a concussion. A functional neuroimaging technique based on the optical properties of brain tissue—called functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)—can be used to evaluate SRC athletes, partially taking into consideration these brain hemodynamic impairments. However, so far, fNIRS has not been extensively used in concussion. In this critical review, there is a description of the main fMRI results involving the neocortex in acutely concussed patients, the influences of hemodynamic impairments on fMRI and fNIRS and the advantages and disadvantages of fNIRS to limit this influence. View Full-Text
Keywords: task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; BOLD signal; fMRI; near-infrared spectroscopy; NIRS; diffuse optical tomography; sport-related concussion; gradual return to play; brain hemodynamic; cerebral blood flow task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging; BOLD signal; fMRI; near-infrared spectroscopy; NIRS; diffuse optical tomography; sport-related concussion; gradual return to play; brain hemodynamic; cerebral blood flow
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Forcione, M.; Colonnese, C.; Belli, A. Cerebral Hemodynamic Influences in Task-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Acute Sport-Related Concussion: A Review. J. Imaging 2018, 4, 59.

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