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J. Imaging 2016, 2(4), 32; doi:10.3390/jimaging2040032

Mechanical Behaviour of Stainless Steels under Dynamic Loading: An Investigation with Thermal Methods

Department of Mechanics Mathematics and Management (DMMM), Politecnico di Bari, Viale Japigia 182, Bari 70126, Italy
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Academic Editors: Carosena Meola and Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz
Received: 18 July 2016 / Revised: 29 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 November 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The World in Infrared Imaging)
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Abstract

Stainless steels are the most exploited materials due to their high mechanical strength and versatility in producing different alloys. Although there is great interest in these materials, mechanical characterisation, in particular fatigue characterisation, requires the application of several standardised procedures involving expensive and time-consuming experimental campaigns. As a matter of fact, the use of Standard Test Methods does not rely on a physical approach, since they are based on a statistical evaluation of the fatigue limit with a fixed probabilistic confidence. In this regard, Infra-Red thermography, the well-known, non-destructive technique, allows for the development of an approach based on evaluation of dissipative sources. In this work, an approach based on a simple analysis of a single thermographic sequence has been presented, which is capable of providing two indices of the damage processes occurring in material: the phase shift of thermoelastic signal φ and the amplitude of thermal signal at twice the loading frequency, S2. These thermal indices can provide synergetic information about the mechanical (fatigue and fracture) behaviour of austenitic AISI 316L and martensitic X4 Cr Ni Mo 16-5-1; since they are related to different thermal effects that produce damage phenomena. In particular, the use of φ and S2 allows for estimation of the fatigue limit of stainless steels at loading ratio R = 0.5 in agreement with the applied Standard methods. Within Fracture Mechanics tests, both indices demonstrate the capacity to localize the plastic zone and determine the position of the crack tip. Finally, it will be shown that the value of the thermoelastic phase signal can be correlated with the mechanical behaviour of the specific material (austenitic or martensitic). View Full-Text
Keywords: thermoelastic stress analysis; fatigue; crack propagation; stainless steels thermoelastic stress analysis; fatigue; crack propagation; stainless steels
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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De Finis, R.; Palumbo, D.; Galietti, U. Mechanical Behaviour of Stainless Steels under Dynamic Loading: An Investigation with Thermal Methods. J. Imaging 2016, 2, 32.

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