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Recycling 2018, 3(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/recycling3010007

Material Implications of Rural Electrification—A Methodological Framework to Assess In-Use Stocks of Off-Grid Solar Products and EEE in Rural Households in Bangladesh

1
Microenergy Systems Research Group, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin, Germany
2
Chair of Circular Economy and Recycling Technologies, Office Z2, Department of Environmental Technology, Technische Universität Berlin, Straße des 17. Juni 135, 10623 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
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Abstract

“Universal access to electricity” is proclaimed as the seventh sustainable development goal (SDG 7) of the United Nations (UN) Sustainable Development Goals list. The achievement of this goal will result in a rapid diffusion of energy technologies that would in turn increase materials stocks, subsequently increase the raw material demand as well as the arising waste flows. This study describes a methodological framework to assess in-use stocks of off-grid solar products and electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) for rural communities in developing countries. The methodology is based on energy-access data. Furthermore, the specifics of the characteristics of off-grid solar products are discussed. The methodology is applied to rural Bangladesh and its solar home system (SHS) program. By the end of 2016, around 4.1 million SHSs were installed. This type of access to electricity has a significant impact on the in-use stocks, as households add the comparatively heavy SHSs to their in-use stocks. In-use stocks of EEE, in general, are low. Off-grid solar products are lighter than standard EEE, and fewer products types are available. These findings will help to better understand material stocks and future waste flows in the given context and will support the adaption of recycling infrastructures. View Full-Text
Keywords: material stocks; electronic waste; SDG 7; rural electrification; off-grid solar products material stocks; electronic waste; SDG 7; rural electrification; off-grid solar products
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Batteiger, A.; Rotter, V.S. Material Implications of Rural Electrification—A Methodological Framework to Assess In-Use Stocks of Off-Grid Solar Products and EEE in Rural Households in Bangladesh. Recycling 2018, 3, 7.

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