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Recycling 2017, 2(4), 17; doi:10.3390/recycling2040017

Production and Characterization of Biomass Briquettes from Tannery Solid Waste

1
Chemical and Bioremediation Unit, Directorate of Research and Development, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology, Zaria 810221, Nigeria
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Samaru-Zaria 811104, Nigeria
3
Petrochemical Division, National Research Institute for Chemical Technology, Basawa-Zaria 810282, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 August 2017 / Revised: 17 September 2017 / Accepted: 19 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
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Abstract

The tannery industry is renowned for the huge amount of toxic solid and liquid waste generated from the cleaning, fleshing, splitting, tanning, shaving and buffing of raw materials. Biomass briquettes are a proven way of generating energy from waste. This study investigates the development and characterization of biomass briquettes from tannery solid wastes (TSWs). TSWs, which comprise hair, flesh, chrome shavings and buffing dust, were collected from a tannery in Kano, Nigeria, to formulate and characterize six briquettes. Scanning electron microscopy and proximate analysis were carried out on the samples. The six briquettes, comprising varying ratios of hair, flesh, chrome shavings and buffing dust, were molded and characterized. Thermal efficiency, durability and compressive strength, among other properties, were determined for the six briquette formulations. The briquettes developed had calorific values between 18.632 and 24.101 MJ/kg. Durability of the briquettes ranged from 98.12% to 99.77%. The energy values were within the range of 17.462–24.101 MJ/kg, which was comparable to other fuel sources such as sub-bituminous coal (20.000–24.730 MJ/kg). This study shows that TSWs can be used for fuel briquette production, which is a source of sustainable energy generation. It is environmentally friendly, cost effective and affordable compared to fossil fuel. View Full-Text
Keywords: briquette; biomass; energy; effluents; fuel; tannery solid waste briquette; biomass; energy; effluents; fuel; tannery solid waste
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Onukak, I.E.; Mohammed-Dabo, I.A.; Ameh, A.O.; Okoduwa, S.I.; Fasanya, O.O. Production and Characterization of Biomass Briquettes from Tannery Solid Waste. Recycling 2017, 2, 17.

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