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Batteries 2016, 2(1), 5; doi:10.3390/batteries2010005

Toxic Gas Emissions from Damaged Lithium Ion Batteries—Analysis and Safety Enhancement Solution

1
Institute of Energy Research and Physical Technologies, Clausthal University of Technology, Am Stollen 19H, 38640 Goslar, Germany
2
Department Fiber Optical Sensor Systems, Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute, Am Stollen 19H, 38640 Goslar, Germany
3
Institute of Energy Research and Physical Technologies, Clausthal University of Technology, Leibnizstrasse 4, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
4
Knein Technische Textilien GmbH, Am Boscheler Berg 32a, 52134 Herzogenrath-Merkstein, Germany
5
CUTEC Institut GmbH, Leibnizstraße 21-23, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas Jossen
Received: 7 December 2015 / Revised: 26 February 2016 / Accepted: 29 February 2016 / Published: 7 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Battery Safety)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1604 KB, uploaded 7 March 2016]   |  

Abstract

Lithium ion batteries play an increasing role in everyday life, giving power to handheld devices or being used in stationary storage solutions. Especially for medium or large scale solutions, the latter application confines a huge amount of energy within a small volume; however, increasing the hazard potential far above the common level. Furthermore, as the safety hazards of lithium ion cells have been known for years, impressively shown by several burning cars or laptops, the need for a further enhancement of the safety of these systems is rising. This manuscript presents measurements of the gas emission from lithium ion batteries in case of a malfunction for different scenarios, showing a large variety of species with mostly toxic to highly toxic properties. The measurements were carried out using a combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS), photoacoustic spectroscopy, and chemical analysis. It is shown that the inflammation of a cell can be overcome, also preventing a cascading effect to neighboring cells, but giving rise to worse toxic gas emission. Furthermore, a filtration concept is presented that decreases the concentration of the emitted components significantly and promises filtration below immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) equivalent levels. View Full-Text
Keywords: lithium ion; battery safety; thermal runaway; cell venting; health hazard; gas filtration lithium ion; battery safety; thermal runaway; cell venting; health hazard; gas filtration
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nedjalkov, A.; Meyer, J.; Köhring, M.; Doering, A.; Angelmahr, M.; Dahle, S.; Sander, A.; Fischer, A.; Schade, W. Toxic Gas Emissions from Damaged Lithium Ion Batteries—Analysis and Safety Enhancement Solution. Batteries 2016, 2, 5.

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