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Fluids 2017, 2(2), 31; doi:10.3390/fluids2020031

Aorta Ascending Aneurysm Analysis Using CFD Models towards Possible Anomalies

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources (DECivil), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-276 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Hospital Sta Maria, Faculty of Medicine, Universidade de Lisboa, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, Santa Marta Hospital, 1169-024 Lisbon, Portugal
4
Nova Medical School, chronic diseases research center (CEDOC), 1169-056 Lisbon, Portugal
5
Department of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Georesources (DECivil), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1600-276 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 March 2017 / Revised: 6 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 10 June 2017
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Abstract

Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) can be seen as complementary tool alongside the visualization capabilities of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT) imaging for decision-making. In this research CT images of three cases (i.e., a healthy heart pilot project and two patients with complex aortic disease) are used to validate and analyse the corresponding computational results. Three 3D domains of the thoracic aorta were tested under hemodynamic conditions. Under normal conditions, the flow inside the thoracic aorta is more streamlined. In the presence of ascending aortic aneurysm, large areas of blue separation zones (i.e., low velocities) are identified, as well as an internal geometry deformation of the aortic wall, respectively. This flow separation is characterized by the reversal of flow and sudden drop of the wall shear stress (WSS) in the aorta. Moreover, the aortic aneurysm simulations adversely affect the flow by increasing the pressure drop and flow inefficiency, due to the anatomical configuration of the ascending aorta. Altered hemodynamics led to a vortex formation and locally reversed the flow that eventually induced a low flow velocity and oscillating WSS in the thoracic aorta. Significant changes in the hemodynamic characteristics affect the normal blood circulation with strong turbulence occurrence, damaging the aortic wall, leading ultimately to the need of surgical intervention to avoid fatal events. View Full-Text
Keywords: aortic aneurysm; computational fluid dynamic (CFD); hemodynamic analysis; wall shear stress (WSS); cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR); computed tomography (CT) aortic aneurysm; computational fluid dynamic (CFD); hemodynamic analysis; wall shear stress (WSS); cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR); computed tomography (CT)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Simão, M.; Ferreira, J.; Tomás, A.C.; Fragata, J.; Ramos, H. Aorta Ascending Aneurysm Analysis Using CFD Models towards Possible Anomalies. Fluids 2017, 2, 31.

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