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Fluids 2016, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/fluids1010003

On Objectivity, Irreversibility and Non-Newtonian Fluids

School of Marine Science and Policy, University of Delaware, Robinson Hall, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Academic Editor: Mehrdad Massoudi
Received: 18 December 2015 / Revised: 14 February 2016 / Accepted: 24 February 2016 / Published: 1 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheology and the Thermo-Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [270 KB, uploaded 1 March 2016]


Early progress in non-Newtonian fluid mechanics was facilitated by the emergence of two fundamental and complementary principles: objective constitutive characterizations and unambiguous identification of irreversible processes. Motivated by practical and economic concerns in recent years, this line of fluid research has expanded to include debris flows, slurries, biofluids and fluid-solid mixtures; i.e., complex nonlinear fluids with disparate flow properties. Phenomenological descriptions of these fluids now necessarily include strong nonlinear coupling between the fluxes of mass, energy and momentum. Here, I review these principles, illustrate how they constrain the constitutive equations for non-Newtonian fluids and demonstrate how they have impacted other areas of fluid research. View Full-Text
Keywords: objectivity; material frame indifference; irreversibility; non-Newtonian fluids; turbulence; coherent Lagrangian structures; J0101 objectivity; material frame indifference; irreversibility; non-Newtonian fluids; turbulence; coherent Lagrangian structures; J0101
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kirwan, A.D. On Objectivity, Irreversibility and Non-Newtonian Fluids. Fluids 2016, 1, 3.

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