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J. Fungi 2018, 4(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4020067

Candida glabrata’s Genome Plasticity Confers a Unique Pattern of Expressed Cell Wall Proteins

1
Instituto Potosino de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica (IPICYT), División de Biología Molecular, Camino a la Presa San José 2055, San Luis Potosí, SLP 78216, Mexico
2
KU Leuven, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Kasteelpark Arenberg 31 bus 2438, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
3
VIB-KU Leuven Center for Microbiology, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 3 June 2018 / Published: 5 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cell Adhesion in Fungal Life and Pathogenesis)
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Abstract

Candida glabrata is the second most common cause of candidemia, and its ability to adhere to different host cell types, to microorganisms, and to medical devices are important virulence factors. Here, we consider three characteristics that confer extraordinary advantages to C. glabrata within the host. (1) C. glabrata has a large number of genes encoding for adhesins most of which are localized at subtelomeric regions. The number and sequence of these genes varies substantially depending on the strain, indicating that C. glabrata can tolerate high genomic plasticity; (2) The largest family of CWPs (cell wall proteins) is the EPA (epithelial adhesin) family of adhesins. Epa1 is the major adhesin and mediates adherence to epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. Several layers of regulation like subtelomeric silencing, cis-acting regulatory regions, activators, nutritional signaling, and stress conditions tightly regulate the expression of many adhesin-encoding genes in C. glabrata, while many others are not expressed. Importantly, there is a connection between acquired resistance to xenobiotics and increased adherence; (3) Other subfamilies of adhesins mediate adherence to Candida albicans, allowing C. glabrata to efficiently invade the oral epithelium and form robust biofilms. It is noteworthy that every C. glabrata strain analyzed presents a unique pattern of CWPs at the cell surface. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida glabrata; cell wall proteins; adherence; virulence; fluconazole resistance; genome plasticity; subtelomeric silencing; clinical isolates Candida glabrata; cell wall proteins; adherence; virulence; fluconazole resistance; genome plasticity; subtelomeric silencing; clinical isolates
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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López-Fuentes, E.; Gutiérrez-Escobedo, G.; Timmermans, B.; Van Dijck, P.; De Las Peñas, A.; Castaño, I. Candida glabrata’s Genome Plasticity Confers a Unique Pattern of Expressed Cell Wall Proteins. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 67.

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