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J. Fungi 2018, 4(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jof4010034

An Estimate of Severe and Chronic Fungal Diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan

1
National Scientific Center for Oncology and Transplantology, Astana 020000, Kazakhstan
2
The National Aspergillosis Centre, Wythenshave Hospital, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester M23 9LT, UK
3
Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE), Cheshire SK10 9AR, UK
4
Department of Clinical Mycology, Allergy and Immunology, I. Metchnikov North Western State Medical University, St. Petersburg 191015, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 3 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Burden in Different Countries)
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Abstract

Our work aimed to generate a preliminary estimation of severe and chronic fungal diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan with a model proposed by LIFE (Leading International Fungal Education). Calculations were carried out on data from 2015. Published results of studies of mycoses in Kazakhstan were identified; in the absence of national data from the scientific literature, the frequency of life-threatening and serious mycoses in defined groups of patients at risk from other countries were taken into account. We also used analogous estimations of mycoses in the Russian Federation. We estimate that 300,824 patients (1.7% of the population) were affected by severe and chronic mycotic diseases. There were an estimated 15,172 cases of acute mycoses, notably tinea capitis in children (11,847), Pneumocystis pneumonia and invasive candidiasis, and 285,652 of chronic fungal diseases. The most frequent were chronic recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis (273,258 cases) and chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (6231). There is uncertainty about the prevalence of asthma in adults; the official number is 12,478 patients, but a prevalence estimate of 1.47% from a WHO consortium yields a prevalence of ~170,000 affected. We have used the official figures to generate the prevalence of fungal asthma, but it is likely to be a significant underestimate. Conclusion: Results of investigation indicate significant prevalence of severe and chronic mycoses in the Republic of Kazakhstan. View Full-Text
Keywords: Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) Program; mycoses; fungal diseases; Republic of Kazakhstan Leading International Fungal Education (LIFE) Program; mycoses; fungal diseases; Republic of Kazakhstan
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kemaykin, V.M.; Tabinbaev, N.B.; Khudaibergenova, M.S.; Olifirovich, A.A.; Abdrakhmanova, L.M.; Denning, D.W.; Klimko, N. An Estimate of Severe and Chronic Fungal Diseases in the Republic of Kazakhstan. J. Fungi 2018, 4, 34.

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