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Bioengineering 2018, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/bioengineering5010003

Chitosan–Cellulose Multifunctional Hydrogel Beads: Design, Characterization and Evaluation of Cytocompatibility with Breast Adenocarcinoma and Osteoblast Cells

1
Laboratory of Fibre and Cellulose, Åbo Akademi University, 20500 Turku, Finland
2
Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Åbo Akademi University, 20500 Turku, Finland
3
Faculty of Medicine, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
4
Pharmaceutical Sciences Laboratory, Åbo Akademi University, 20500 Turku, Finland
5
Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Center for Functional Materials, Åbo Akademi University, 20500 Turku, Finland
6
Institute of Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University Graz, Heinrichstraße 28, 8010 Graz, Austria
7
Institute of Organic Chemistry and Macromolecular Chemistry, Centre of Excellence for Polysaccharide Research, Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Humboldtstraße 10, D-07743 Jena, Germany
8
Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, B-3001 Leuven, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gary Chinga Carrasco
Received: 15 November 2017 / Revised: 5 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 January 2018 / Published: 9 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Biocomposite Engineering and Bio-Applications)
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Abstract

Cytocompatible polysaccharide-based functional scaffolds are potential extracellular matrix candidates for soft and hard tissue engineering. This paper describes a facile approach to design cytocompatible, non-toxic, and multifunctional chitosan-cellulose based hydrogel beads utilising polysaccharide dissolution in sodium hydroxide-urea-water solvent system and coagulation under three different acidic conditions, namely 2 M acetic acid, 2 M hydrochloric acid, and 2 M sulfuric acid. The effect of coagulating medium on the final chemical composition of the hydrogel beads is investigated by spectroscopic techniques (ATR–FTIR, Raman, NMR), and elemental analysis. The beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid displayed an unchanged chitosan composition with free amino groups, while the beads coagulated in 2 M hydrochloric and sulfuric acid showed protonation of amino groups and ionic interaction with the counterions. The ultrastructural morphological study of lyophilized beads showed that increased chitosan content enhanced the porosity of the hydrogel beads. Furthermore, cytocompatibility evaluation of the hydrogel beads with human breast adenocarcinoma cells (soft tissue) showed that the beads coagulated in 2 M acetic acid are the most suitable for this type of cells in comparison to other coagulating systems. The acetic acid fabricated hydrogel beads also support osteoblast growth and adhesion over 192 h. Thus, in future, these hydrogel beads can be tested in the in vitro studies related to breast cancer and for bone regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: chitosan; cellulose; coagulation; hydrogel; scaffolds; cytocompatibility; tissue engineering chitosan; cellulose; coagulation; hydrogel; scaffolds; cytocompatibility; tissue engineering
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Trivedi, P.; Saloranta-Simell, T.; Maver, U.; Gradišnik, L.; Prabhakar, N.; Smått, J.-H.; Mohan, T.; Gericke, M.; Heinze, T.; Fardim, P. Chitosan–Cellulose Multifunctional Hydrogel Beads: Design, Characterization and Evaluation of Cytocompatibility with Breast Adenocarcinoma and Osteoblast Cells. Bioengineering 2018, 5, 3.

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