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Hydrology 2018, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology5020024

An Operational Method for Flood Directive Implementation in Ungauged Urban Areas

1
Laboratory of Hydrology and Aquatic Systems Analysis, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Thessaly, 38334 Volos, Greece
2
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Athens, Greece
3
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-2175, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 18 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 20 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Large Scale Flood Monitoring and Detection)
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Abstract

An operational framework for flood risk assessment in ungauged urban areas is developed within the implementation of the EU Floods Directive in Greece, and demonstrated for Volos metropolitan area, central Greece, which is frequently affected by intense storms causing fluvial flash floods. A scenario-based approach is applied, accounting for uncertainties of key modeling aspects. This comprises extreme rainfall analysis, resulting in spatially-distributed Intensity-Duration-Frequency (IDF) relationships and their confidence intervals, and flood simulations, through the SCS-CN method and the unit hydrograph theory, producing design hydrographs at the sub-watershed scale, for several soil moisture conditions. The propagation of flood hydrographs and the mapping of inundated areas are employed by the HEC-RAS 2D model, with flexible mesh size, by representing the resistance caused by buildings through the local elevation rise method. For all hydrographs, upper and lower estimates on water depths, flow velocities and inundation areas are estimated, for varying roughness coefficient values. The methodology is validated against the flood event of the 9th October 2006, using observed flood inundation data. Our analyses indicate that although typical engineering practices for ungauged basins are subject to major uncertainties, the hydrological experience may counterbalance the missing information, thus ensuring quite realistic outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: EU Floods Directive; flood risk management; extreme rainfall; SCS-CN; 2D hydraulic modelling; HEC-RAS; building representation; urban floods; ungauged streams; uncertainty EU Floods Directive; flood risk management; extreme rainfall; SCS-CN; 2D hydraulic modelling; HEC-RAS; building representation; urban floods; ungauged streams; uncertainty
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Papaioannou, G.; Efstratiadis, A.; Vasiliades, L.; Loukas, A.; Papalexiou, S.M.; Koukouvinos, A.; Tsoukalas, I.; Kossieris, P. An Operational Method for Flood Directive Implementation in Ungauged Urban Areas. Hydrology 2018, 5, 24.

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