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Hydrology 2016, 3(3), 30; doi:10.3390/hydrology3030030

Groundwater Evaporation Ponds: A Viable Option for the Management of Shallow Saline Waterlogged Areas

1
CSIR—National Geophysical Research Institute (CSIR-NGRI), Hyderabad 500007, India
2
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo 2075, Sri Lanka
3
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), NASC Complex, DPS Marg, New Delhi 110012, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luca Brocca
Received: 16 April 2016 / Revised: 29 July 2016 / Accepted: 29 July 2016 / Published: 9 August 2016

Abstract

The province of Punjab is the main food basket of India. In recent years, many regions of Punjab are facing acute waterlogging problems and increased secondary salinity, which have negative impacts on food security of the nation. In particular, these problems are more pronounced in the Muktsar district of Punjab. The observed groundwater levels trend between 2005 and 2011 implies that groundwater levels are coming towards the land surface at the rate of 0.5 m/year in Lambi and Malout blocks. In this study, a groundwater flow model was constructed using MODFLOW to understand the groundwater table dynamics and to test the groundwater evaporation ponds to draw down the groundwater levels in the waterlogging areas of Muktsar district. The predicted flow model results indicate that groundwater levels could be depleted at the rate of 0.3 m/year between 2012 and 2018 after the construction of Groundwater Evaporation Ponds (GEP). In addition, the constructed ponds can be used for aquaculture that generates additional income. The proposed GEP method may be a promising tool and suitable for the reduction of waterlogging in any region if there is no proper surface drainage, and also for enhancement of agricultural production that improves the social and economic status of the farming community.
Keywords: MODFLOW; groundwater evaporation ponds; waterlogging; Muktsar; Punjab MODFLOW; groundwater evaporation ponds; waterlogging; Muktsar; Punjab
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Surinaidu, L.; Nandan, M.J.; Prathapar, S.; Gurunadha Rao, V.V.S.; Rajmohan, N. Groundwater Evaporation Ponds: A Viable Option for the Management of Shallow Saline Waterlogged Areas. Hydrology 2016, 3, 30.

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