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Hydrology 2016, 3(1), 6; doi:10.3390/hydrology3010006

Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France

1
Department of Physical Geography, Trier University, Behringstraße, D-54286 Trier, Germany
2
Department of Geography, Málaga University, Campus of Teatinos s/n, 29071 Málaga, Spain
3
University of Reims Champagne-Ardenne, GEGENAA- EA 3795, Reims, France
4
URCA, GEGENAA EA 3795, 51100 Reims, France
5
Bioemco, IRD, BP11416 Niamey, Niger
6
Laboratoire Réactions et Génie des Procédés, CNRS, Lorraine University, ENSIC, 1 rue Grandville, B.P. 20451, 54000 Nancy Cedex, France
7
Soil Physics and Land Management Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708PB, Wageningen, The Netherlands
8
Department of Geography, Valencia University, BlascoIbàñez, 28, 46010 Valencia, Spain
9
Department of Land, Environment, Agriculture and Forestry, University of Padova, Agripolis, Vialedell’Università 16, 35020 Legnaro (PD), Italy
10
Physical Geography, DCHS, Edificio Luis Vives, University of La Rioja, 26004 Logroño, Spain
11
Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, CSIC; Campus Aula Dei, 50080 Zaragoza, Spain
12
Department of Environment and Soil Science, University of Lleida, RoviraRoure 191, 25198 Lleida, Spain
13
Geology and Geochemistry Department, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, C/ Francisco Tomás y Valiente, 7, 28049 Madrid, Spain
14
Applied Research Department, Agri-Environmental Research Centre IMIDRA, Alcalá de Henares (Madrid), Spain
15
Greencollar Group, Level 1, 37 George Street, The Rocks, Sydney NSW 2000, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vijay P. Singh
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 17 January 2016 / Accepted: 6 February 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
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Abstract

Small portable rainfall simulators are considered a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups in Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja), France (Reims) and Germany (Trier) have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application) to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany). The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety of methodologies used in rainfall simulations to study the problem of soil erosion and describe the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aims of this study are: (i) to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; (ii) to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; (iii) to demonstrate the importance of the development of standard method for measurement of soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; and (iv) and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed infiltration capacity, susceptibility of the soil to detachment and generation of sediment loads to runoff to be determined. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion, to make comparisons between different locations, and to evaluate the influence of different soil characteristics. The comparative analysis of the studies performed in different study areas points out the need to define an operational methodology to carry out rainfall simulations, which allows us to obtain representative and comparable results and to avoid errors in the interpretation in order to achieve comparable information about runoff and soil loss. View Full-Text
Keywords: rainfall simulation; soil erosion; soil hydrology; qualitative comparison; vineyards rainfall simulation; soil erosion; soil hydrology; qualitative comparison; vineyards
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Rodrigo Comino, J.; Iserloh, T.; Morvan, X.; Malam Issa, O.; Naisse, C.; Keesstra, S.D.; Cerdà, A.; Prosdocimi, M.; Arnáez, J.; Lasanta, T.; Ramos, M.C.; Marqués, M.J.; Ruiz Colmenero, M.; Bienes, R.; Ruiz Sinoga, J.D.; Seeger, M.; Ries, J.B. Soil Erosion Processes in European Vineyards: A Qualitative Comparison of Rainfall Simulation Measurements in Germany, Spain and France. Hydrology 2016, 3, 6.

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