Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Performance and Uncertainty Evaluation of Snow Models on Snowmelt Flow Simulations over a Nordic Catchment (Mistassibi, Canada)
Previous Article in Journal
Flash Flood Prediction by Coupling KINEROS2 and HEC-RAS Models for Tropical Regions of Northern Vietnam
Previous Article in Special Issue
Skill Assessment of Water Supply Outlooks in the Colorado River Basin
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Hydrology 2015, 2(4), 266-288; doi:10.3390/hydrology2040266

Meteorological Knowledge Useful for the Improvement of Snow Rain Separation in Surface Based Models

Water Resources Engineering, Lund University, Lund S-221 00, Sweden
Operational Weather Squadron, United States Air Forces in Europe, Kapuan Air Base, APO-AE 09021, Germany
Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Lulea University, Lulea 971-87, Sweden
Research and Development, Hydrology, Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping 601-76, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Juraj Parajka, Cécile Ménard and Ladislav Holko
Received: 26 September 2015 / Revised: 19 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Snow Hydrology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1222 KB, uploaded 25 November 2015]   |  


An accurate precipitation phase determination—i.e., solid versus liquid—is of paramount importance in a number of hydrological, ecological, safety and climatic applications. Precipitation phase can be determined by hydrological, meteorological or combined approaches. Meteorological approaches require atmospheric data that is not often utilized in the primarily surface based hydrological or ecological models. Many surface based models assign precipitation phase from surface temperature dependent snow fractions, which assume that atmospheric conditions acting on hydrometeors falling through the lower atmosphere are invariant. This ignores differences in phase change probability caused by air mass boundaries which can introduce a warm air layer over cold air leading to more atmospheric melt energy than expected for a given surface temperature, differences in snow grain-size or precipitation rate which increases the magnitude of latent heat exchange between the hydrometers and atmosphere required to melt the snow resulting in snow at warmer temperatures, or earth surface properties near a surface observation point heating or cooling a shallow layer of air allowing rain at cooler temperatures or snow at warmer temperatures. These and other conditions can be observed or inferred from surface observations, and should therefore be used to improve precipitation phase determination in surface models. View Full-Text
Keywords: precipitation phase; snow; snow modeling; hydrology; meteorology; hydrometeorology; phase change precipitation phase; snow; snow modeling; hydrology; meteorology; hydrometeorology; phase change

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Feiccabrino, J.; Graff, W.; Lundberg, A.; Sandström, N.; Gustafsson, D. Meteorological Knowledge Useful for the Improvement of Snow Rain Separation in Surface Based Models. Hydrology 2015, 2, 266-288.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Hydrology EISSN 2306-5338 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top