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Medicines 2017, 4(2), 38; doi:10.3390/medicines4020038

In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Essential Oil from Artemisia absinthium L. Formulated in Nanocochleates against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

1
Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmacy and Food, Havana University, Havana 10400, Cuba
2
Parasitology Department, Institute of Tropical Medicine Pedro Kouri, Havana 10400, Cuba
3
Department of Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy and Food, Havana University, Havana 10400, Cuba
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Eleni Skaltsa
Received: 28 March 2017 / Revised: 26 May 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 9 June 2017
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Abstract

Background: Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease caused by protozoan parasites from Leishmania genus. Currently, there are no effective vaccines available and the available therapies are far from ideal. In particular, the development of new therapeutic strategies to reduce the infection caused by Leishmania amazonensis could be considered desirable. Different plant-derived products have demonstrated antileishmanial activity, including the essential oil (EO) from Artemisia absinthium L. (EO-Aa), Asteraceae. Methods: In the present study, the EO-Aa formulated in nanocochleates (EO-Aa-NC) was investigated in vitro against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis and non-infected macrophages from BALB/c mice. In addition, the EO-Aa-NC was also evaluated in vivo against on experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis, which body weight, lesion progression, and parasite load were determined. Results: EO-Aa-NC displayed IC50 values of 21.5 ± 2.5 μg/mL and 27.7 ± 5.6 μg/mL against intracellular amastigotes of L. amazonensis and non-infected peritoneal macrophage, respectively. In the animal model, the EO-Aa-NC (30 mg/kg/intralesional route/every 4 days 4 times) showed no deaths or weight loss greater than 10%. In parallel, the EO-Aa-NC suppressed the infection in the murine model by approximately 50%, which was statistically superior (p < 0.05) than controls and mice treated with EO-Aa. In comparison with Glucantime®, EO-Aa-NC inhibited the progression of infection as efficiently (p > 0.05) as administration of the reference drug. Conclusions: Encochleation of EO-Aa resulted in a stable, tolerable, and efficacious antileishmanial formulation, facilitating systemic delivery of EO, with increased activity compared to administration of the free EO-Aa. This new formulation shows promising potential to future studies aimed at a new therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Artemisia absinthium; essential oil; Leishmania amazonensis; cutaneous leishmaniasis; nanocochleate Artemisia absinthium; essential oil; Leishmania amazonensis; cutaneous leishmaniasis; nanocochleate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tamargo, B.; Monzote, L.; Piñón, A.; Machín, L.; García, M.; Scull, R.; Setzer, W.N. In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of Essential Oil from Artemisia absinthium L. Formulated in Nanocochleates against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Medicines 2017, 4, 38.

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