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Medicines 2016, 3(1), 5; doi:10.3390/medicines3010005

The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain

University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90089-9121, USA
Academic Editors: Gerhard Litscher and William Chi-shing Cho
Received: 30 November 2015 / Revised: 15 January 2016 / Accepted: 26 January 2016 / Published: 29 January 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Acupuncture – Basic Research and Clinical Application)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [227 KB, uploaded 29 January 2016]   |  


The most effective and safe treatment site for pain is in the skin. This chapter discusses the reasons to treat pain in the skin. Pain is sensed in the skin through transient receptor potential cation channels and other receptors. These receptors have endogenous agonists (yang) and antagonists (yin) that help the body control pain. Acupuncture works through modulation of these receptor activities (qi) in the skin; as do moxibustion and liniments. The treatment of pain in the skin has the potential to save many lives and improve pain therapy in most patients. View Full-Text
Keywords: pain; skin; topical; liniment; acupuncture; transient receptor potential cation channels pain; skin; topical; liniment; acupuncture; transient receptor potential cation channels

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Adams, J.D. The Effects of Yin, Yang and Qi in the Skin on Pain. Medicines 2016, 3, 5.

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