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Medicines 2015, 2(2), 55-66; doi:10.3390/medicines2020055

Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum

1
Laboratory for Phytobiochemistry and Medicinal Plants Studies, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
2
Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies (IMPM), P.O. Box 6163, Yaoundé, Cameroon
3
Department of Chemistry, Higher Teacher Training College, University of Yaoundé 1. P.O. Box 47, Yaoundé, Cameroon
4
Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon
5
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, CA 94943, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ronan Batista
Received: 2 April 2015 / Revised: 16 April 2015 / Accepted: 20 April 2015 / Published: 30 April 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines)
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Abstract

The aim of this work was to screen extracts from Annona muricata and Annona reticulata in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum. Crude ethanolic extracts, methylene chloride fractions, aqueous fractions, subfractions and isolated compounds (stigmasterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, lichexanthone, gallic acid and β-sitosterol-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) were tested for cytotoxicity on erythrocytes and Human Foreskin Fibroblasts cells and against the W2 strain of P. falciparum in culture. Results indicated that none of the extracts was cytotoxic at concentrations up to 10 µg/mL. Most of the extracts, fractions and subfractions inhibited the growth of P. falciparum with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 3.46 µg/mL. The most potent was the subfraction 30 from A. muricata stem bark (IC50 = 0.07 µg/mL) with a selectivity index of ˃ 142. Subfraction 3 from A. muricata root also exhibited very good activity (IC50 = 0.09 µg/mL) with a high selectivity index (SI ˃ 111). Amongst the isolated compounds, only gallic acid showed activity with IC50 of 3.32 µg/mL and SI > 10. These results support traditional claims for A. muricata and A. reticulata in the treatment of malaria. Given their limited cytotoxicity profile, their extracts qualify as promising starting points for antimalarial drug discovery. View Full-Text
Keywords: Annona muricata; Annona reticulata; cytotoxicity; Plasmodium falciparum; antiplasmodial activity Annona muricata; Annona reticulata; cytotoxicity; Plasmodium falciparum; antiplasmodial activity
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamthe, L.R.T.; Fokou, P.V.T.; Mbouna, C.D.J.; Keumoe, R.; Ndjakou, B.L.; Djouonzo, P.T.; Mfopa, A.N.; Legac, J.; Tsabang, N.; Gut, J.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Boyom, F.F. Extracts from Annona Muricata L. and Annona Reticulata L. (Annonaceae) Potently and Selectively Inhibit Plasmodium Falciparum. Medicines 2015, 2, 55-66.

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