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Toxics 2018, 6(3), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics6030040

Trace Element Concentrations in Drinking Water and Urine among Saharawi Women and Young Children

1
Institute of Marine Research, 5817 Bergen, Norway
2
Department of Nursing and Health Promotion, Faculty of Health Sciences, OsloMet-Oslo Metropolitan University, 0310 Oslo, Norway
3
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1433 Aas, Norway
4
Saharawi Ministry of Public Health, 37000 Rabouni, Algeria
5
Division of Infection Control and Environmental Health, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, 0403 Oslo, Norway
6
Bjorknes University College, 0456 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2018 / Revised: 16 July 2018 / Accepted: 18 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Contaminants in Water: Is It still a Conundrum?)
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Abstract

Poor water quality has been reported along with a variety of negative health outcomes in the Saharawi refugee camps in Algeria. We assessed the concentration of elements in drinking water and urine in refugee women and children. Twenty-four samples of distributed public drinking water were collected, along with urine samples from 77 women and 296 children. Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we analyzed water and urine for 31 and 10 elements, respectively. In addition, the water samples were analyzed for five anions by ion-exchange chromatography. Data were described according to two areas: zone 1 with purified water and water with naturally better quality, and zone 2 with only partially purified water. Most elements in drinking water had significantly higher concentration in zone 2 compared with zone 1. Sodium, chloride, nitrite, and nitrate were the parameters that exceeded the WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. Among both women and children, urinary concentration of vanadium, arsenic, selenium, lead, iodine, and uranium exceeded reference values, and most of the elements were significantly higher in zone 2 compared to zone 1. Even though water purification in the Saharawi refugee camps has increased during the last years, some elements are still exceeding the WHO guidelines for drinking water quality. Moreover, urinary exposure of some elements exceeded reference values from the literature. Further effort should be made to improve the water quality among the Saharawi refugees. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; urine; trace elements; chemical elements; thyroid dysfunction drinking water; urine; trace elements; chemical elements; thyroid dysfunction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Aakre, I.; Henjum, S.; Folven Gjengedal, E.L.; Risa Haugstad, C.; Vollset, M.; Moubarak, K.; Saleh Ahmed, T.; Alexander, J.; Kjellevold, M.; Molin, M. Trace Element Concentrations in Drinking Water and Urine among Saharawi Women and Young Children. Toxics 2018, 6, 40.

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