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Inorganics 2014, 2(2), 177-190; doi:10.3390/inorganics2020177
Article

Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes

1,†
, 2,†
, 3,†, 4,†
, 4,†
, 3,†
 and 5,†,*
Received: 15 March 2014; in revised form: 21 April 2014 / Accepted: 21 April 2014 / Published: 29 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inorganic Fullerene-like Nanoparticles and Inorganic Nanotubes)
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Abstract: The synthesis of inorganic nanotubes (INT) from layered compounds of a small size (<10 nm in diameter) and number of layers (<4) is not a trivial task. Calculations based on density functional tight-binding theory (DFTB) predict that under highly exergonic conditions, the reaction could be driven into a “window” of (meta-) stability, where 1–3-layer nanotubes will be formed. Indeed, in this study, single- to triple-wall WS2 nanotubes with a diameter of 3–7 nm and a length of 20–100 nm were produced by high-power plasma irradiation of multiwall WS2 nanotubes. As target materials, plane crystals (2H), quasi spherical nanoparticles (IF) and multiwall, 20–30 layers, WS2 nanotubes were assessed. Surprisingly, only INT-WS2 treated by plasma resulted in very small, and of a few layers, “daughter” nanotubules. The daughter nanotubes occur mostly attached to the outer surface of the predecessor, i.e., the multiwall “mother” nanotubes. They appear having either a common growth axis with the multiwall nanotube or tilted by approximately 30° or 60° with respect to its axis. This suggests that the daughter nanotubes are generated by exfoliation along specific crystallographic directions. A growth mechanism for the daughter nanotubes is proposed. High resolution transmission and scanning electron microscopy (HRTEM/HRSEM) analyses revealed the distinctive nanoscale structures and helped elucidating their growth mechanism.
Keywords: single-wall inorganic nanotubes; growth mechanism; multiwall inorganic nanotubes; WS2; high power plasma ablation; window of stability single-wall inorganic nanotubes; growth mechanism; multiwall inorganic nanotubes; WS2; high power plasma ablation; window of stability
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Brüser, V.; Popovitz-Biro, R.; Albu-Yaron, A.; Lorenz, T.; Seifert, G.; Tenne, R.; Zak, A. Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes. Inorganics 2014, 2, 177-190.

AMA Style

Brüser V, Popovitz-Biro R, Albu-Yaron A, Lorenz T, Seifert G, Tenne R, Zak A. Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes. Inorganics. 2014; 2(2):177-190.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Brüser, Volker; Popovitz-Biro, Ronit; Albu-Yaron, Ana; Lorenz, Tommy; Seifert, Gotthard; Tenne, Reshef; Zak, Alla. 2014. "Single- to Triple-Wall WS2 Nanotubes Obtained by High-Power Plasma Ablation of WS2 Multiwall Nanotubes." Inorganics 2, no. 2: 177-190.

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