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Amorphous Li-Al-Based Compounds: A Novel Approach for Designing High Performance Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries
Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research Dresden (IFW), Institute for Complex Materials, Helmholtzstr. 20, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
Institute of Materials Science, TU Dresden, Helmholtzstr. 7, D-01069 Dresden, Germany
Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR), Bautzner Landstraße 400, D-01314 Dresden, Germany
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials—Energy Storage Systems (IAM-ESS), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 October 2013; in revised form: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 18 November 2013
Abstract: A new amorphous compound with the initial atomic composition Al43Li43Y6Ni8 applied as electrode material for Li-ion batteries is investigated. Unlike other amorphous compounds so-far investigated as anode materials, it already contains Li as a base element in the uncycled state. The amorphous compound powder is prepared by high energy ball milling of a master alloy. It shows a strongly enhanced specific capacity in contrast to amorphous alloys without Li in the initial state. Therewith, by enabling a reversible (de)lithiation of metallic electrodes without the phase transition caused volume changes it offers the possibility of much increased specific capacities than conventional graphite anodes. According to the charge rate (C-rate), the specific capacity is reversible over 20 cycles at minimum in contrast to conventional crystalline intermetallic phases failing by volume changes. The delithiation process occurs quasi-continuously over a voltage range of nearly 4 V, while the lithiation is mainly observed between 0.1 V and 1.5 V. That way, the electrode is applicable for different potential needs. The electrode stays amorphous during cycling, thus avoiding volume changes. The cycling performance is further enhanced by a significant amount of Fe introduced as wear debris from the milling tools, which acts as a promoting element.
Keywords: high energy ball milling; pre-lithiation; anode; intermetallic phase
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Thoss, F.; Giebeler, L.; Thomas, J.; Oswald, S.; Potzger, K.; Reuther, H.; Ehrenberg, H.; Eckert, J. Amorphous Li-Al-Based Compounds: A Novel Approach for Designing High Performance Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries. Inorganics 2013, 1, 14-31.
Thoss F, Giebeler L, Thomas J, Oswald S, Potzger K, Reuther H, Ehrenberg H, Eckert J. Amorphous Li-Al-Based Compounds: A Novel Approach for Designing High Performance Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries. Inorganics. 2013; 1(1):14-31.
Thoss, Franziska; Giebeler, Lars; Thomas, Jürgen; Oswald, Steffen; Potzger, Kay; Reuther, Helfried; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Eckert, Jürgen. 2013. "Amorphous Li-Al-Based Compounds: A Novel Approach for Designing High Performance Electrode Materials for Li-Ion Batteries." Inorganics 1, no. 1: 14-31.