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Photonics 2015, 2(1), 184-199; doi:10.3390/photonics2010184

Transverse Electromagnetic Mode Conversion for High-Harmonic Self-Probing Spectroscopy

1
CEA, IRAMIS, Lasers, Interactions and Dynamics Laboratory - LIDyL, CEA-Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
2
Université de Bordeaux - CNRS - CEA, CELIA, UMR5107, F33405 Talence, France
3
Université de Toulouse - CNRS, LCAR-IRSAMC, 31062 Toulouse Cedex 09, France
Current address: Department of Physics Atomic Physics Lund University Box 118, SE-221-00 Lund, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 December 2014 / Accepted: 30 January 2015 / Published: 10 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme UV Lasers: Technologies and Applications)
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Abstract

We report on high-order harmonic (HHG) two-source interferometry (TSI) in molecular gases. We used a 0-\(\pi\) phase plate to create two bright spots at the focus of a lens by converting a Gaussian laser beam into a TEM please define \(_{01}\) Transverse Electromagnetic Mode. The two bright foci produce two synchronized HHG sources. One of them is used to probe on-going dynamics in the generating medium, while the other serves to heterodyne the signal. The interference of the emissions in the far–field gives access to the phase difference between the two sources. In self–probing HHG phase spectroscopy, one of the two sources is used as a reference while the other one probes some on goin dynamics in the generating medium. We first compute overlap integrals to investigate the mode conversion efficiency. We then establish a clear relation between the laser phase-front curvature and the far-field overlap of the two HHG beams. Both Fresnel diffraction calculations and an experimental lens position scan are used to reveal variations of the phase front inclination in each source. We show that this arrangement offers \(\frac{\lambda_{XUV}}{100}\) precision, enabling extremely sensitive phase measurements. Finally, we use this compact setup for TSI and measure phase variations across the molecular alignment revival of nitrogen and in vibrating sulfur hexafluoride. In both gases, the phase variations change sign around the ionization threshold of the investigated molecule. View Full-Text
Keywords: HHG; two-source interferometry; XUV; diffractive optical element; attosecond HHG; two-source interferometry; XUV; diffractive optical element; attosecond
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Camper, A.; Ferré, A.; Lin, N.; Skantzakis, E.; Staedter, D.; English, E.; Manschwetus, B.; Burgy, F.; Petit, S.; Descamps, D.; Auguste, T.; Gobert, O.; Carré, B.; Salières, P.; Mairesse, Y.; Ruchon, T. Transverse Electromagnetic Mode Conversion for High-Harmonic Self-Probing Spectroscopy. Photonics 2015, 2, 184-199.

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