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Children 2016, 3(4), 32; doi:10.3390/children3040032

The Parent Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PPFQ): Item Reduction and Validation in a Clinical Sample of Swedish Parents of Children with Chronic Pain

1
Functional Area Medical Psychology/Functional Unit Behavior Medicine, Uppgång P8:01, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden
2
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
3
Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, Karolinska Institutet, 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lynn Walker
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 7 November 2016 / Published: 19 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic and Recurrent Pain)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [223 KB, uploaded 19 November 2016]

Abstract

In pediatric chronic pain, research indicates a positive relation between parental psychological flexibility (i.e., the parent’s willingness to experience distress related to the child’s pain in the service of valued behavior) and level of functioning in the child. This points to the utility of targeting parental psychological flexibility in pediatric chronic pain. The Parent Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PPFQ) is currently the only instrument developed for this purpose, and two previous studies have indicated its reliability and validity. The current study sought to validate the Swedish version of the 17-item PPFQ (PPFQ-17) in a sample of parents (n = 263) of children with chronic pain. Factor structure and internal reliability were evaluated by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and Cronbach’s alpha. Concurrent criterion validity was examined by hierarchical multiple regression analyses with parental anxiety and depression as outcomes. The PCA supported a three-factor solution with 10 items explaining 69.5% of the total variance. Cronbach’s alpha (0.86) indicated good internal consistency. The 10-item PPFQ (PPFQ-10) further explained a significant amount of variance in anxiety (29%), and depression (35.6%), confirming concurrent validity. In conclusion, results support the reliability and validity of the PPFQ-10, and suggest its usefulness in assessing psychological flexibility in parents of children with chronic pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: psychological flexibility; validation; pediatric chronic pain; parents; anxiety; depression; distress; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) psychological flexibility; validation; pediatric chronic pain; parents; anxiety; depression; distress; Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Wiwe Lipsker, C.; Kanstrup, M.; Holmström, L.; Kemani, M.; Wicksell, R.K. The Parent Psychological Flexibility Questionnaire (PPFQ): Item Reduction and Validation in a Clinical Sample of Swedish Parents of Children with Chronic Pain. Children 2016, 3, 32.

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