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Children 2016, 3(3), 12; doi:10.3390/children3030012

Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children

1
Discipline of Biokinetics, Exercise and Leisure Sciences, School of Health Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa
2
Department of Human Performance, College of Allied Health and Nursing, Minnesota State University, Mankato, MN 56001, USA
3
Discipline of Sport and Exercise Science, UC-Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Bruce, ACT 2617, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sari Acra
Received: 22 June 2016 / Revised: 14 July 2016 / Accepted: 21 July 2016 / Published: 30 July 2016
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Abstract

This study examined whether cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and body composition are associated with salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), a mucosal immunity marker, and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of stress-related sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, in South African children. Morning (7:30–8:00 a.m.) saliva samples were collected from 132 children (10.05 ± 1.68 years old, 74 females, 58 males). Body composition, resting blood pressure, and predicted maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) were determined, and SIgA and sAA were quantified. Obese children had significantly higher sAA compared with overweight and normal weight children (p < 0.01). SIgA secretion rate was significantly lower in obese and overweight vs. normal weight children (p < 0.01). Multiple-linear regression analysis revealed that body mass index (BMI) (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (p < 0.05) were independent predictors of sAA with CRF acting as a mitigator. Age and BMI predicted SIgA secretion rate (p < 0.05) with BMI (p < 0.001) found to be an independent predictor of SIgA secretion rate. Obesity, based on BMI, was associated with elevated SNS activity and lowered mucosal immunity. CRF-mitigated sympathetic activation was not associated with mucosal immunity. View Full-Text
Keywords: physical activity; obesity; immunity; children; salivary biomarkers physical activity; obesity; immunity; children; salivary biomarkers
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MDPI and ACS Style

Starzak, D.E.; Konkol, K.F.; McKune, A.J. Effects of Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Obesity on Salivary Secretory IgA and Alpha-Amylase in South African Children. Children 2016, 3, 12.

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