Children 2014, 1(1), 5-20; doi:10.3390/children1010005
Article

Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence

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Received: 19 December 2013; in revised form: 30 January 2014 / Accepted: 31 January 2014 / Published: 19 February 2014
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Little research has empirically addressed the relationships among parental knowledge of child development, parental attunement, parental expectations, and child independence in predicting the social competence of infants and toddlers with special health care needs. We used baseline data from the Strengthening Families Project, a prevention intervention study that tested Bavolek’s Nurturing Program for Parents and Their Children with Health Challenges to explore the roles of these variables in predicting social competence in infants and toddlers with special health care needs. Bivariate relationships among the study variables were explored and used to develop and test a model for predicting social competence among these children. Study findings pointed to a combination of indirect and direct influences of parent variables in predicting social competence. Results indicated that parents who encouraged healthy behaviors for developing a sense of power/independence were more likely to have children with social competence developing on schedule. Elements related to parental expectations, however, did not have the hypothesized relationships to social competence. The present study provides preliminary data to support the development of knowledge based interventions. Within medical settings, such interventions may indeed maximize benefit while minimizing cost.
Keywords: social competence; infant; toddler; attunement; parental knowledge; independence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zand, D.; Pierce, K.; Thomson, N.; Baig, M.W.; Teodorescu, C.; Nibras, S.; Maxim, R. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence. Children 2014, 1, 5-20.

AMA Style

Zand D, Pierce K, Thomson N, Baig MW, Teodorescu C, Nibras S, Maxim R. Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence. Children. 2014; 1(1):5-20.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zand, Debra; Pierce, Katherine; Thomson, Nicole; Baig, M. W.; Teodorescu, Cristiana; Nibras, Sohail; Maxim, Rolanda. 2014. "Social Competence in Infants and Toddlers with Special Health Care Needs: The Roles of Parental Knowledge, Expectations, Attunement, and Attitudes toward Child Independence." Children 1, no. 1: 5-20.

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