Glycosylated Triterpenoids as Endosomal Escape Enhancers in Targeted Tumor Therapies
AbstractProtein-based targeted toxins play an increasingly important role in targeted tumor therapies. In spite of their high intrinsic toxicity, their efficacy in animal models is low. A major reason for this is the limited entry of the toxin into the cytosol of the target cell, which is required to mediate the fatal effect. Target receptor bound and internalized toxins are mostly either recycled back to the cell surface or lysosomally degraded. This might explain why no antibody-targeted protein toxin has been approved for tumor therapeutic applications by the authorities to date although more than 500 targeted toxins have been developed within the last decades. To overcome the problem of insufficient endosomal escape, a number of strategies that make use of diverse chemicals, cell-penetrating or fusogenic peptides, and light-induced techniques were designed to weaken the membrane integrity of endosomes. This review focuses on glycosylated triterpenoids as endosomal escape enhancers and throws light on their structure, the mechanism of action, and on their efficacy in cell culture and animal models. Obstacles, challenges, opportunities, and future prospects are discussed. View Full-Text
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Fuchs, H.; Niesler, N.; Trautner, A.; Sama, S.; Jerz, G.; Panjideh, H.; Weng, A. Glycosylated Triterpenoids as Endosomal Escape Enhancers in Targeted Tumor Therapies. Biomedicines 2017, 5, 14.
Fuchs H, Niesler N, Trautner A, Sama S, Jerz G, Panjideh H, Weng A. Glycosylated Triterpenoids as Endosomal Escape Enhancers in Targeted Tumor Therapies. Biomedicines. 2017; 5(2):14.Chicago/Turabian Style
Fuchs, Hendrik; Niesler, Nicole; Trautner, Alexandra; Sama, Simko; Jerz, Gerold; Panjideh, Hossein; Weng, Alexander. 2017. "Glycosylated Triterpenoids as Endosomal Escape Enhancers in Targeted Tumor Therapies." Biomedicines 5, no. 2: 14.
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